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  1. #91
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    Does stevia supercharge up your whey?

    Many people are concerned about synthetic sweeteners such as Sucralose and Acesulfame potassium and prefer to use whey products sweetened with stevia. While there’s little data that’s a safer approach per se, a recent study suggests stevia may be additive to whey for impacting muscle mass, fat mass, and markers for increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Before you get too excited, this was a rat study, so the effect needs to be reproduced in humans vs red eyed squeaky rodents. Still, if you’re using whey that’s also using stevia for a flavoring/sweetening agent, there’s at least a possibility the stevia’s having an additive effect to the whey you’re ingesting. While stevia appears quite safe, although there’s not much for long term studies. There’s also an issue of what’s found in the whole leaf vs the highly processed stevia products sold as sugar replacements which requires more research.

    What’s the mechanism for how stevia supercharges the effects of whey? That’s not altogether clear at this time, but stevia does contain a number of bio-active compounds. The full paper linked below does discuss nutrients and other bioactive compounds found to have antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory properties associated with the consumption of the leaf extracts of this plant. However, no specific compound or mechanism was identified in this study:

    Whey protein sweetened with Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Bert.) increases mitochondrial biogenesis markers in the skeletal muscle of resistance-trained rats. Nutrition & Metabolism volume 16, Article number: 65 (2019)
    Background

    A combination of resistance training and whey protein supplementation is a common practice among athletes and recreational exercisers to enhance muscle growth and strength. Although their safety as food additives is controversial, artificial sweeteners are present in whey protein supplements. Thus, natural sweeteners extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana are a potential alternative, due to their safety and health benefits. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein sweetened with S. rebaudiana on physical performance and mitochondrial biogenesis markers in the skeletal muscle of resistance-trained rats.
    Methods

    Forty male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups: sedentary rats, trained rats, trained rats receiving whey protein and trained rats receiving whey protein sweetened with S. rebaudiana leaf extracts. Resistance training was performed by climbing a ladder 5 days per week, during 8-weeks. The training sessions consisted of four climbs carrying a load of 50, 75, 90, and 100% of the maximum load-carrying capacity which we determined before by performing a maximum load-carrying test for each animal. After this period, we collected plasma and tissues samples to evaluate biochemical, histological and molecular (western blot) parameters in these rats.
    Results

    Dietary supplementation with whey protein sweetened with S. rebaudiana significantly enhanced the maximum load-carrying capacity of resistance-trained rats, compared with non-sweetened whey protein supplementation. This enhanced physical performance was accompanied by an increase in the weight of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscle pads. Although the muscle pad of the biceps brachii was not altered, we observed a significant increase in PGC-1α expression, which was followed by a similar pattern in TFAM protein expression, two important mitochondrial biogenesis markers. In addition, a higher level of AMPK phosphorylation was observed in these resistance-trained rats. Finally, supplementation with whey protein sweetened with S. rebaudiana also induced a significant decrease in retroperitoneal adipocyte diameter and an increase in the weight of brown adipose tissue pads in resistance-trained rats.
    Conclusion

    The addition of Stevia rebaudiana leaf extracts to whey protein appears to be a potential strategy for those who want to increase muscular mass and strength and also improve mitochondrial function. This strategy may be useful for both athletes and patients with metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.
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  2. #92
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    Thanks You. That was the great post though.
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  3. #93
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    Guy knows what he is talking about!
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    Hi, I have a question about whey. I am in my 1st year of body building, and i read a lot about food schedule's. A lot of people seem to use whey as a 'meal' during the day. But I'm wondering: why take a fast protein, and not a slower one like casein? I would reason that casein would be better, because it spreads more during the day in stead of whey.

    I would love to hear your opinion on this, so I can adjust my food schedule the right way. Many thanks in advance!
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  5. #95
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    Originally Posted by Jowel84 View Post
    Hi, I have a question about whey. I am in my 1st year of body building, and i read a lot about food schedule's. A lot of people seem to use whey as a 'meal' during the day. But I'm wondering: why take a fast protein, and not a slower one like casein? I would reason that casein would be better, because it spreads more during the day in stead of whey.

    I would love to hear your opinion on this, so I can adjust my food schedule the right way. Many thanks in advance!

    If you know you're not going to eat for a long time, casien may be the better choice for that, which is why some will eat some cottage cheese and such before bed. Most people eat on a regular schedule, and whey does have various unique benefits and effects (tons of studies posted in this thread...), so whey is generally the go to protein supplement.
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  6. #96
    Registered User Jowel84's Avatar
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    Originally Posted by WillBrink View Post
    If you know you're not going to eat for a long time, casien may be the better choice for that, which is why some will eat some cottage cheese and such before bed. Most people eat on a regular schedule, and whey does have various unique benefits and effects (tons of studies posted in this thread...), so whey is generally the go to protein supplement.
    tanks verry much for yor reply! because of my work i'm not able to eat every 3 hours, so i will plan on that with the right shake.
    Again, thanks!
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  7. #97
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    Various studies suggests whey improves glycemic control and oxidative stress. This study done in a diabetic population:

    CHANGE OF SOME OXIDATIVE STRESS PARAMETERS AFTER SUPPLEMENTATION WITH WHEY PROTEIN ISOLATE IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS: Whey protein isolate in oxidative stress

    J. Nutrition 14 December 2019, 110700



    Highlights

    • Chronic hyperglycemia is associated with long-term damage, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels

    •The development of these disorders reflects complex pathological processes in which the oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species

    •Daily supplementation of undenaturated cysteine-rich whey protein isolate improved oxidative stress and inflammatory markers

    Source:

    https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...9990071930259X
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  8. #98
    Registered User fitnessguyuk's Avatar
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    How much is too much?

    I weigh about 78kg and am managing to get around 170g of protein per day - one scoop of whey with breakfast and two in my protein shakes are my supplemented protein. I generally have these in the morning. Would it be advisable to take a slower acting protein in the evening to provide my body with enough during the night?
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  9. #99
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    Originally Posted by fitnessguyuk View Post
    I weigh about 78kg and am managing to get around 170g of protein per day - one scoop of whey with breakfast and two in my protein shakes are my supplemented protein. I generally have these in the morning. Would it be advisable to take a slower acting protein in the evening to provide my body with enough during the night?
    To follow up - I am generally now evening out at around 160g to 170g of protein per day. Also taking 4g of creatine per day - I am seeing gains gradually which I guess is the best way to do it.
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  10. #100
    Chromadex Verified faipdeooiad's Avatar
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    It’s really not necessary to have a slower digesting casein protein for overnight. Just hit your macros for the day and you’re good to go
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  11. #101
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    This may not seem whey related to some, but it is, as whey is the most effective method - along with it's many other potential benefits - to keep Glutathione levels up. NAC is another route of keeping Glutathione levels up, but with whey you're getting the protein, BCAA's, etc:

    Glutathione Serum Levels and Rate of Multimorbidity Development in Older Adults.


    J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2019 Apr 25.

    Abstract

    We aimed to investigate the association between baseline levels of total serum glutathione (tGSH) and rate of chronic disease accumulation over time. The study population (n = 2,596) was derived from a population-based longitudinal study on ≥60-year-olds living in Stockholm. Participants were clinically assessed at baseline, 3- and 6-year follow-ups.

    Multimorbidity was measured as the number of chronic conditions from a previously built list of 60 diseases. Linear mixed models were applied to analyze the association between baseline tGSH levels and the rate of multimorbidity development over 6 years. We found that at baseline, participants with ≥4 diseases had lower tGSH levels than participants with no chronic conditions (3.3 vs 3.6 µmol/L; p < .001). At follow-up, baseline levels of tGSH were inversely associated with the rate of multimorbidity development (β * time: -0.044, p < .001) after adjusting for age, sex, education, levels of serum creatinine, C-reactive protein, albumin, body mass index, smoking, and time of dropout or death.

    In conclusion, serum levels of tGSH are inversely associated with multimorbidity development; the association exists above and beyond the link between tGSH and specific chronic conditions. Our findings support the hypothesis that tGSH is a biomarker of multisystem dysregulation that eventually leads to multimorbidity.
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  12. #102
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    Folks, interesting paper on the Appetite−Suppressant/GLP-1-Stimulating Effects of Whey Proteins:

    The Appetite−Suppressant and GLP-1-Stimulating Effects of Whey Proteins in Obese Subjects are Associated with Increased Circulating Levels of Specific Amino Acids

    Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 775;

    Abstract


    The satiating effect of whey proteins depends upon their unique amino acid composition because there is no difference when comparing whey proteins or a mix of amino acids mimicking the amino acid composition of whey proteins. The specific amino acids underlying the satiating effect of whey proteins have not been investigated to date.

    Aims and Methods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the appetite-suppressant effect of an isocaloric drink containing whey proteins or maltodextrins on appetite (satiety/hunger measured by a visual analogue scale or VAS), anorexigenic gastrointestinal peptides (circulating levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY)) and amino acids (circulating levels of single, total [TAA] and branched-chain amino acids [BCAA]) in a cohort of obese female subjects (n = 8; age: 18.4 ± 3.1 years; body mass index, BMI: 39.2 ± 4.6 kg/m2).

    Results. Each drink significantly increased satiety and decreased hunger, the effects being more evident with whey proteins than maltodextrins. Similarly, circulating levels of GLP-1, PYY and amino acids (TAA, BCAA and alanine, arginine, asparagine, citrulline, glutamine, hydroxyproline, isoleucine, histidine, leucine, lysine, methionine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tyrosine, and valine) were significantly higher with whey proteins than maltodextrins. In subjects administered whey proteins (but not maltodextrins), isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, tyrosine, and valine were significantly correlated with hunger (negatively), satiety, and GLP-1 (positively).

    Conclusions. Eight specific amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, tyrosine, and valine) were implicated in the appetite-suppressant and GLP-1-stimulating effects of whey proteins, which may be mediated by their binding with nutrient-sensing receptors expressed by L cells within the gastrointestinal wall. The long-term satiating effect of whey proteins and the effectiveness of a supplementation with these amino acids (i.e., as a nutraceutical intervention) administered during body weight reduction programs need to be further investigated.

    Full paper:

    https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/12/3/775/htm
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  13. #103
    Registered User majorintensity's Avatar
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    Very informative post, I'm definitely referring my gym noobs to this.
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  14. #104
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    Does whey have any potential benefits to this current Covid 19 crisis? I strongly suspect the answer is yes: Whey is the most effect way to increase glutathione (GSH), which is essential for the immune system to deal with viruses. Another effective route is via N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), which can be taken orally or IV. Here's a sampling of the lit on the importance of GSH for viral challenges etc below.

    Glutathione as an antiviral – A sampling of the literature

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21358592

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18926849

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16787218

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9367343

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11115795

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26692473

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9568464

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8441757

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18678861

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12368227

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31487871

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29033950

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9230243

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12654482

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21366409

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24899897

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24899897

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28039563

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8891667

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9164274

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26663823

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8256245

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19151318

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25135637

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5425915/

    While it's a small % of people who will experience serious complications from this virus, here's my thoughts on the above (GSH. etc) as well as possible method to combat those serious complications:

    https://brinkzone.com/life-saving-st...complications/
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  15. #105
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    This new study, with the bizzaro name of ANCHORS A-WHEY, found interesting effects: "favorable reductions in aortic stiffness and aortic hemodynamic load"

    Abstract

    ANCHORS A-WHEY was a 12-week randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to examine the effect of whey protein on large artery stiffness, cerebrovascular responses to cognitive activity and cognitive function in older adults. Methods: 99 older adults (mean ± SD; age 67 ± 6 years, BMI 27.2 ± 4.7kg/m2, 45% female) were randomly assigned to 50g/daily of whey protein isolate (WPI) or an iso-caloric carbohydrate (CHO) control for 12 weeks (NCT01956994). Aortic stiffness was determined as carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV). Aortic hemodynamic load was assessed as the product of aortic systolic blood pressure and heart rate (Ao SBP × HR). Cerebrovascular response to cognitive activity was assessed as change in middle-cerebral artery (MCA) blood velocity pulsatility index (PI) during a cognitive perturbation (Stroop task).

    Cognitive function was assessed using a computerized neurocognitive battery. Results: cfPWV increased slightly in CHO and significantly decreased in WPI (p < 0.05). Ao SBP × HR was unaltered in CHO but decreased significantly in WPI (p < 0.05). Although emotion recognition selectively improved with WPI (p < 0.05), WPI had no effect on other domains of cognitive function or MCA PI response to cognitive activity (p > 0.05 for all).

    Conclusions:

    Compared to CHO, WPI supplementation results in favorable reductions in aortic stiffness and aortic hemodynamic load with limited effects on cognitive function and cerebrovascular function in community-dwelling older adults.

    https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/12/4/1054/htm
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  16. #106
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    Y'all, a new meta looking at outcomes important to elderly populations:

    Whey protein ingestion in elderly diet and the association with physical, performance and clinical outcomes
    Highlights

    The use of whey protein may be a food strategy to increase protein intake.

    Whey protein can prevent cardiovascular, metabolic risks and hepatic steatosis complications.

    Whey protein supplements may be promising for the health improvement of the elderly.

    Experimental Gerontology
    11 April 2020, 110936

    Abstract

    Nutrition is critical to the health of the elderly, since most of them have a deficiency in key nutrient. The use of whey protein may be a food strategy to increase protein intake. The objective of this work was to evaluate the ingestion of whey protein for the elderly and the association with physical performance and clinical outcomes. A systematic review was conducted in order to find papers that shed some light in the correlation between whey protein and the elderly.
    Inclusion criteria: population: elderly; intervention: use of whey protein when compared to control group; outcome: related to health, nutrition, or quality of life. Database: PubMed, with papers published in the last 5 years. Search strategy: (elder OR senior OR elderly OR aging OR aged OR old OR older) AND (whey OR “whey protein”). 35 papers were selected of which 22 had a physical performance outcome and 13 had clinical outcomes. Studies indicate that whey protein supplements promote protein synthesis in the elderly, improving muscle performance and aerobic capacity, protecting against sarcopenia and reducing the risk for falls. In the papers studied, the age group considered to be elderly was ≥65 years in 27 papers and ≥60 years in the other 8 papers.

    Whey protein also appears to contribute to improved health, recovery from disease, prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic risks, and hepatic steatosis complications.
    Data suggest that whey protein supplements may be promising for the health improvement of the elderly.

    https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...31556520301571
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    wonderful!!
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    Nutrition is critical to the health

    Eight specific amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, tyrosine, and valine) were implicated in the appetite-suppressant and GLP-1-stimulating effects of whey proteins, which may be mediated by their binding with nutrient-sensing receptors expressed by L cells within the gastrointestinal wall. The long-term satiating effect of whey proteins and the effectiveness of a supplementation with these amino acids (i.e., as a nutraceutical intervention) administered during body weight reduction programs need to be further investigated.
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    Some great information here, thanks.
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  20. #110
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    A review on whey specific to Sarcopenia. This was one is a "no duh" to those who follow the data on whey, and something I mentioned in my 2007 article on sarcopenia (1) , but it's nice to see a modern review that focuses on that specific aspect of whey:

    Whey for Sarcopenia; Can Whey Peptides, Hydrolysates or Proteins Play a Beneficial Role?

    Foods 2020, 9(6), 750;

    Abstract

    As the human body ages, skeletal muscle loses its mass and strength. It is estimated that in 10% of individuals over the age of 60, this muscle frailty has progressed to sarcopenia. Biomarkers of sarcopenia include increases in inflammatory markers and oxidative stress markers and decreases in muscle anabolic markers.

    Whey is a high-quality, easily digested dairy protein which is widely used in the sports industry. This review explores the evidence that whey protein, hydrolysates or peptides may have beneficial effects on sarcopenic biomarkers in myoblast cell lines, in aged rodents and in human dietary intervention trials with the older consumer.

    A daily dietary supplementation of 35 g of whey is likely to improve sarcopenic biomarkers in frail or sarcopenia individuals. Whey supplementation, consumed by an older health adult certainly improves muscle mTOR signaling, but exercise appears to have the greatest benefit to older muscle. In vitro cellular assays are central for bioactive and bioavailable peptide identification and to determine their mechanism of action on ageing muscle.

    Source:

    https://www.mdpi.com/2304-8158/9/6/750

    (1) https://brinkzone.com/sarcopenia-the...osed-epidemic/
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  21. #111
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    A most interesting benefit of whey may be an improvement in D3 absorption. I say “may” as it was done in animals, but if the effect happens with humans, yet another benefit of whey.

    It’s interesting to note there seems to be a wide variability in absorption in D3, so forming a protein complex with D may be a strategy for enhanced absorption.

    Milk protein complexation enhances post prandial vitamin D3 absorption in rats

    Abstract

    This study investigated the effect of complexation with whey and casein protein, respectively, on post prandial absorption of vitamin D3. For this purpose, Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 78) were administered 840 IU vitamin D3 dissolved in ethanol and either (i) complexed with whey protein isolate (protein : vitamin ration 2 : 1), (ii) complexed with caseinate (protein : vitamin ration 2 : 1), or (iii) provided in a water solution.

    Serum concentrations of vitamin D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 were measured before and 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 10 hours after administration of vitamin D3. Significant effects of complexation on serum concentrations of vitamin D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 were demonstrated.

    Complexation with whey protein isolate resulted in the fastest and highest absorption of vitamin D3 while an effect of complexation with caseinate was evident but more modest and non-significant.

    In conclusion, the study demonstrates that complexation with milk proteins is an efficient strategy to enhance bioaccessibility of vitamin D3.

    Source:

    https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/arti...Q#!divAbstract
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    Another interesting whey study finding benefits on postprandial glycaemia:

    Whey protein consumption following fasted exercise reduces early postprandial glycaemia in centrally obese males: a randomised controlled trial

    European Journal of Nutrition (2020)Cite this article

    Abstract
    Purpose

    Acute submaximal exercise and whey protein supplementation have been reported to improve postprandial metabolic and appetite responses to a subsequent meal independently. We aimed to examine the combination of these strategies on postprandial responses to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast.

    Methods

    Twelve centrally obese males (age 41 ± 3 years, waist circumference 123.4 ± 2.9 cm), completed three trials in a single-blind, crossover design. Participants rested for 30 min (CON) or completed 30 min low–moderate-intensity treadmill walking (51 ± 1% 𝑉˙𝑂2peak
    ) followed immediately by ingestion of 20 g whey protein (EX + PRO) or placebo (EX). After 15 min, a standardised breakfast was consumed and blood, expired gas and subjective appetite were sampled postprandially. After 240 min, an ad libitum lunch meal was provided to assess energy intake.

    Results

    During EX + PRO, post-breakfast peak blood glucose was reduced when compared with EX and CON (EX + PRO: 7.6 ± 0.4 vs EX: 8.4 ± 0.3; CON: 8.3 ± 0.3 mmol l−1, p ≤ 0.04). Early postprandial glucose AUC0–60 min was significantly lower under EX + PRO than EX (p = 0.011), but not CON (p = 0.12). Over the full postprandial period, AUC0–240 min during EX + PRO did not differ from other trials (p > 0.05). Peak plasma insulin concentrations and AUC0–240 min were higher during EX + PRO than CON, but similar to EX. Plasma triglyceride concentrations, substrate oxidation and subjective appetite responses were similar across trials and ad libitum energy intake was not influenced by prior fasted exercise, nor its combination with whey protein supplementation (p > 0.05).

    Conclusion

    Following fasted low–moderate-intensity exercise, consuming whey protein before breakfast may improve postprandial glucose excursions, without influencing appetite or subsequent energy intake, in centrally obese males.

    #Whey

    https://link.springer.com/article/10...94-020-02304-2
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  23. #113
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    thx that's great content
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