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  1. #121
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    😉 More Whey Win! 🤓

    Effects of whey protein on glycemic control and serum lipoproteins in patients with metabolic syndrome and related conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials

    Abstract

    Background

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the effects of whey protein on serum lipoproteins and glycemic status in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and related disorders.

    Methods

    Online databases, such as Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PubMed and Scopus were systematically searched by two independent authors from inception until 30th April 2020 for English randomized clinical trials investigating the efficacy of whey protein administration in subjects with Mets or related conditions on the parameters of glycemic and lipid control compared to certain control. In order to evaluate the included studies’ methodological quality, Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool was applied. Using Cochrane’s Q test and I-square (I2) statistic, the included trials’ heterogeneity was also examined. Using a random-effects model, data were pooled, and weighted mean difference (WMD) was considered as the overall effect size.

    Results

    Twenty-two studies were selected to be included in this meta-analysis. Consumption of whey protein resulted in significant reduction of HbA1c (WMD: -0.15; 95% CI: − 0.29, − 0.01) insulin (WMD: -0.94; 95% CI: − 1.68, − 0.21) and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (WMD: -0.20; 95% CI: − 0.36, − 0.05). A significant reduction in triglycerides levels (WMD: -17.12; 95% CI: − 26.52, − 7.72), total cholesterol (WMD: -10.88; 95% CI -18.60, − 3.17), LDL-cholesterol levels (WMD: -8.47 95% CI: − 16.59, − 0.36) and total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio (WMD: -0.26; 95% CI: − 0.41, − 0.10) was found as well.

    Conclusions

    This meta-analysis suggests that supplementation with whey protein had beneficial effect on several indicators of glycemic control and lipid parameters in patients with MetS and related conditions.

    Full paper:

    https://lipidworld.biomedcentral.com...44-020-01384-7
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  2. #122
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    Study on COPD:


    Fortified whey beverage for improving muscle mass in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a single-blind, randomized clinical trial

    Respiratory Research volume 21, Article number: 216 (2020) Cite this article

    Abstract
    Background

    The development of effective nutritional supports for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) is still challenging. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of daily consumption of fortified whey on inflammation, muscle mass, functionality, and quality of life in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD.

    Methods

    A single-blind, randomized trial study was performed on patients with COPD (n = 46). Participants in the intervention group (n = 23) daily received 250 ml of whey beverage fortified with magnesium and vitamin C for 8 weeks. Any changes in inflammatory cytokines (including interleukin- 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα)) were the primary outcomes and the secondary outcomes were fat-free mass, handgrip strength, malnutrition, glutathione and malondialdehyde serum concentrations, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Body composition and muscle strength were measured by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) and hydraulic hand dynamometer, respectively. Fat-free mass index (FFMI) was also calculated.

    Results

    At the end of the study, 44 patients were analyzed. There were significant decreases in IL-6 concentrations in the intervention group compared to the control group. Also, FFMI, body protein, and handgrip strength increased significantly in the intervention group with significant changes between two groups. Moreover, improvement in health-related quality of life was observed in the intervention group compared to the control group. There were no significant changes in other study variables.

    Conclusions

    This novel nutritional intervention decreased inflammatory cytokines levels, improved indices of skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength, and ultimately, increased HRQoL in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. Thus, it is suggested to do further studies to assess the effects of nutrition intervention on COPD progression.

    https://respiratory-research.biomedc...31-020-01466-1
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  3. #123
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    Just out, interesting study that found different impact on different aged populations:

    Whey Protein Drink Ingestion before Breakfast Suppressed Energy Intake at Breakfast and Lunch, but Not during Dinner, and Was Less Suppressed in Healthy Older than Younger Men

    Abstract

    Ageing is associated with changes in feeding behavior. We have reported that there is suppression of energy intake three hours after whey protein drink ingestion in young, but not older, men. This study aimed to determine these effects over a time period of 9 h. Fifteen younger (27 ± 1 years, 25.8 ± 0.7 kg/m2) and 15 older (75 ± 2 years, 26.6 ± 0.8 kg/m2) healthy men were studied on three occasions on which they received, in a randomized order, a 30 g/120 kcal, 70 g/280 kcal whey-protein, or control (~2 kcal) drink. Ad-libitum energy intake (sum of breakfast, lunch, and dinner) was suppressed in a protein load responsive fashion (P = 0.001). Suppression was minimal at breakfast, substantial at lunch (~−16%, P = 0.001), no longer present by dinner, and was less in older than younger men (−3 ± 4% vs. −8 ± 4%, P = 0.027). Cumulative protein intake was increased in the younger and older men (+20% and +42%, P < 0.001). Visual analogue scale ratings of fullness were higher and desire to eat and prospective food consumption were lower after protein vs. control, and these effects were smaller in older vs. younger men (interaction effect P < 0.05). These findings support the use of whey-protein drink supplements in older people who aim to increase their protein intake without decreasing their overall energy intake

    Full paper:

    https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/12/11/3318/htm
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  4. #124
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    Medicine Learns From The 'Muscle Heads'? Is this the vindication the bbing community deserves? Where's my apology letter for "dangerous" advice I was giving out over the decades outlining/recommending all this? 🤔

    How to Increase Muscle Mass in Critically Ill Patients: Lessons Learned from Athletes and Bodybuilders.
    Curr Nutr Rep. 2020 Oct 24.

    Abstract

    Purpose of review:

    Decades of research on nutrition and exercise on athletes and bodybuilders has yielded various strategies to promote anabolism and improve muscle health and growth. We reviewed these interventions in the context of muscle loss in critically ill patients.

    Recent findings:

    For critically ill patients, ensuring optimum protein intake is important, potentially using a whey-containing source and supplemented with vitamin D and leucine. Agents like hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate and creatine can be used to promote muscle synthesis. Polyunsaturated fatty acids stimulate muscle production as well as have anti-inflammatory properties that may be useful in critical illness. Adjuncts like oxandralone promote anabolism. Resistance training has shown mixed results in the ICU setting but needs to be explored further with specific outcomes.

    Critically ill patients suffer from severe proteolysis during hospitalization as well as persistent inflammation, immunosuppression, and catabolism syndrome after discharge. High protein supplementation, ergogenic aids, anti-inflammatories, and anabolic adjuncts have shown potential in alleviating muscle loss and should be used in intensive care units to optimize patient recovery.

    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33098051/
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  5. #125
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    Interesting pilot study on whey + exercise with HF. Dose was 50g per day of whey:

    Potential Beneficial Effects of Dietary Protein Supplementation and Exercise on Functional Capacity in a Pilot Study of Individuals with Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction

    Abstract

    Approximately half of heart failure patients in the US have heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). HFpEF impairs physical performance and thus reduces quality of life. Increasing dietary protein intake can increase lean body mass and physical performance in healthy elderly individuals, but the effect of a high-quality protein supplement, with or without a structured exercise program, has not been investigated in HFpEF patients. Twenty-three obese elderly HFpEF patients with grade 1 or 2 diastolic dysfunction were randomized into three groups: control, protein supplementation alone, and protein plus exercise. Protein supplementation involved providing sufficient whey protein so that total intake was 1.2 g protein/kg/day. The exercise intervention was 2 days of hydrotherapy and 1 day of gym sessions per week under supervision of a fitness expert. Physical parameters and functional tests were performed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Protein supplementation alone failed to improve physical performance. However, when combined with light exercise, there was significant improvement in some (6-minute walk, 10 m walking speed, quadriceps strength), but not all, physical function measurements. The results of this pilot study suggest that further exploration of potential interactive effects between protein supplementation and light exercise in individuals with HFpEF is warranted.

    Full Paper:

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7758656/
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  6. #126
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    New whey study of interest:

    Dietary Whey Protein Supplementation Increases Immunoglobulin G Production by Affecting Helper T Cell Populations after Antigen Exposure

    Abstract

    Whey protein is a by-product of cheese and casein manufacturing processes. It contains highly bioactive molecules, such as epidermal growth factor, colony-stimulating factor, transforming growth factor-α and -β, insulin-like growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor.

    Effects of whey protein on immune responses after antigen (hemagglutinin peptide) injection were evaluated in rats. Experimental diets were formulated based on NIH-31M and supplemented with 1% amino acids mixture (CON) or 1% whey protein concentrate (WPC) to generate isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets.

    Rats were fed the experimental diets for two weeks and then exposed to antigen two times (Days 0 and 14). Blood was collected on Days 0, 7, 14, and 21 for hematological analysis. The WPC group showed decreased IgA and cytotoxic T cells before the antigen injection (Day 0) but increased IgG, IL-2, and IL-4 after antigen injection due to increased B cells and T cells. Helper T cells were increased at Days 14 and 21, but cytotoxic T cells were not affected by WPC. WPC may activate adaptive immunity (IgG) against antigen by modulating helper T cells.

    Bioactive molecules might contribute to the immune-enhancing effects of whey protein concentrate.

    Paper:

    https://www.mdpi.com/2304-8158/10/1/194/htm
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  7. #127
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    That they matched for leucine content was smart and interesting outcome, demonstrating once again, the superiority of whey is not due simply to its leucine content nor AA profile per se:

    Dampened Muscle mTORC1 Response Following Ingestion of High-Quality Plant-Based Protein and Insect Protein Compared to Whey
    Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1396;

    Abstract

    Increased amino acid availability acutely stimulates protein synthesis partially via activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Plant-and insect-based protein sources matched for total protein and/or leucine to animal proteins induce a lower postprandial rise in amino acids, but their effects on mTOR activation in muscle are unknown.
    C57BL/6J mice were gavaged with different protein solutions: whey, a pea–rice protein mix matched for total protein or leucine content to whey, worm protein matched for total protein, or saline. Blood was drawn 30, 60, 105 and 150 min after gavage and muscle samples were harvested 60 min and 150 min after gavage to measure key components of the mTORC1 pathway.
    Ingestion of plant-based proteins induced a lower rise in blood leucine compared to whey, which coincided with a dampened mTORC1 activation, both acutely and 150 min after administration.

    Matching total leucine content to whey did not rescue the reduced rise in plasma amino acids, nor the lower increase in mTORC1 compared to whey. Insect protein elicits a similar activation of downstream mTORC1 kinases as plant-based proteins, despite lower postprandial aminoacidemia. The mTORC1 response following ingestion of high-quality plant-based and insect proteins is dampened compared to whey in mouse skeletal muscle.

    https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/13/5/1396/htm
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  8. #128
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    Very promising pilot study:

    Dietary supplementation with whey protein improves systemic microvascular function in heart failure patients: a pilot study


    Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 2021, 54 (6): e10577

    Endothelial dysfunction is a well-known component of the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF), with proven prognostic value. Dietary supplementation with whey protein (WP) has been widely used to increase skeletal muscle mass, but it also has vascular effects, which are less understood. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of WP supplementation on the systemic microvascular function of HF patients.

    This was a blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial that evaluated the effects of 12-week WP dietary supplementation on systemic microvascular function, in patients with HF New York Heart Association (NYHA) classes I/II. Cutaneous microvascular flow and reactivity were assessed using laser speckle contrast imaging, coupled with pharmacological local vasodilator stimuli. Fifteen patients (aged 64.5±6.2 years, 11 males) received WP supplementation and ten patients (aged 68.2±8.8 years, 8 males) received placebo (maltodextrin). The increase in endothelial-dependent microvascular vasodilation, induced by skin iontophoresis of acetylcholine, was improved after WP (P=0.03) but not placebo (P=0.37) supplementation.

    Moreover, endothelial-independent microvascular vasodilation induced by skin iontophoresis of sodium nitroprusside, was also enhanced after WP (P=0.04) but not placebo (P=0.42) supplementation. The results suggested that dietary supplementation with WP improved systemic microvascular function in patients with HF.

    https://read.qxmd.com/read/33886810/...-a-pilot-study
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  9. #129
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    More Whey Win!

    Comparison of the Effect of Soy protein and Whey protein on Body Composition: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

    Abstract
    Background:

    Essential amino acids (EAAs) promote the process of regulating muscle synthesis. Thus, whey protein that contains higher amounts of EAA can have a considerable effect on modifying muscle synthesis. However, there is insufficient evidence regarding the effect of soy and whey protein supplementation on body composition. Thus, we sought to perform a meta-analysis of published Randomized Clinical Trials that examined the effect of whey protein supplementation and soy protein supplementation on body composition (lean body mass, fat mass, body mass and body fat percentage) in adults.

    Methods:

    We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar, up to August 2020, for all relevant published articles assessing soy protein supplementation and whey protein supplementation on body composition parameters. We included all Randomized Clinical Trials that investigated the effect of whey protein supplementation and soy protein supplementation on body composition in adults. Pooled means and standard deviations (SD) were calculated using random-effects models. Subgroup analysis was applied to discern possible sources of heterogeneity.

    Results:

    After excluding non-relevant articles, 10 studies, with 596 participants, remained in this study. We found a significant increase in lean body mass after whey protein supplementation weighted mean difference (WMD: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.15, 1.67. P= 0.019). Subgroup analysis, for whey protein, indicated that there was a significant increase in lean body mass in individuals concomitant to exercise (WMD: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.47, 2.00; P= 0.001). There was a significant increase in lean body mass in individuals who received 12 or less weeks of whey protein (WMD: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.18, 2.63; P<0.0001). We observed no significant change between whey protein supplementation and body mass, fat mass, and body fat percentage. We found no significant change between soy protein supplementation and lean body mass, body mass, fat mass, and body fat percentage. Subgroup analysis for soy protein indicated there was a significant increase in lean body mass in individuals who supplemented for 12 or less weeks with soy protein (WMD: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.89; P< 0.0001).

    Conclusion:

    Whey protein supplementation significantly improved body composition via increases in lean body mass, without influencing fat mass, body mass, and body fat percentage.

    https://www.cambridge.org/core/journ...E51A4328132F3F
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