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  1. #481
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    Interesting study there:

    Temporal trends in dietary creatine intake from 1999 to 2018: an ecological study with 89,161 participants


    Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition volume 18, Article number: 53 (2021)


    Abstract
    Introduction

    We described here the annual variations in mean dietary creatine intake from 1999 to 2018 in U.S. children and adults using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database.

    Methods

    Dietary intake information from ten consecutive rounds of NHANES (from 1999 to 2000 to 2017–2018) was extracted for a total of 89,161 respondents aged 0–85 years. Individual values for total grams of creatine consumed per day were computed using the average amount of creatine (3.88 g/kg) across all creatine-containing food sources.

    Results

    The average daily intake of creatine across the entire sample was 0.70 ± 0.78 g (95% confidence interval [CI], from 0.69 to 0.71) and 13.1 ± 16.5 mg/kg body weight (95% CI, from 13.0 to 13.2). A significant negative trend for dietary creatine intake was found in infants (r = − 0.019; P = 0.042), and children and adolescents (r = − 0.024; P < 0.001).

    Conclusions

    Our findings suggest a variation in dietary creatine intake in the U.S. population during the past 20 years, with young persons tend to consume fewer grams of creatine per day from 1999 onwards. Long-running studies are highly warranted to assess possible health consequences of variable creatine intake in human nutrition.

    Source:

    https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/arti...0-021-00453-1?
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  2. #482
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    One more time people, timing does not matter:

    J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2021 Sep;61(9):1219-1225.

    Timing of creatine supplementation does not influence gains in unilateral muscle hypertrophy or strength from resistance training in young adults: a within-subject design

    Abstract

    Background: Creatine supplementation, in close proximity to resistance training sessions, may be an important strategy to augment muscle accretion and strength. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of creatine supplementation immediately before compared to immediately after unilateral resistance training on hypertrophy and strength.

    Methods: Using a counter-balanced, double-blind, repeated measures within-subject design, ten recreationally active participants (7 males; 3 females; age: 23±5 years; height: 174±9 cm; body mass: 73.5±9.7 kg) were randomized to supplement with creatine monohydrate (0.1 g/kg of body mass) immediately before and placebo immediately after training one side of the body and placebo immediately before and creatine immediately after training the other side of the body on alternate days. Resistance training consisted of elbow flexion and knee extension (3-6 sets at 80% 1-repetition maximum [1-RM]) for 8 weeks. Prior to and following training, muscle thickness (elbow flexors and leg extensors; ultrasonography) and strength (1-RM for the elbow flexors and knee extensors) was assessed.

    Results: There was a significant increase over time for muscle thickness, strength, and relative strength (P<0.01), with no differences between creatine ingestion strategies. Total training volume performed was similar between conditions (P=0.56).

    Conclusions: Creatine supplementation, immediately before or immediately after unilateral resistance training, produces similar gains in muscle hypertrophy and strength in young adults.

    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34610729/
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  3. #483
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    😉 Creatine News 🤓

    I have always considered creatine conditionally essential myself:

    Perspective: Creatine, a Conditionally Essential Nutrient: Building the Case Advances in Nutrition 2021 October 18

    Creatine is a major component of energy metabolism that is abundant in human skeletal muscle, brain, and heart. Either synthesized internally or provided via an omnivorous diet, creatine is required for normal growth, development, and health.

    Recent advances in creatine nutrition and physiology suggest that the quantity of creatine the body naturally synthesizes is not sufficient to meet human needs. As a result, humans have to obtain enough creatine from the diet, which nominates creatine as an essential nutrient in certain circumstances.

    In this article, we summarize arguments that creatine should be considered a conditionally essential nutrient for humans and propose several questions that should be addressed in future research.

    https://read.qxmd.com/read/34662902/...lding-the-case
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  4. #484
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    Just out, a review paper as to why there’s likely no one who will not benefit from optimizing creatine tissue levels:

    Creatine as a food supplement for the general population

    Journal of Functional Foods
    Volume 83, August 2021, 104568

    Highlights

    •Creatine is non-proteinogenic amino acid available from various animal-based foods.
    •Lower-than-expected dietary creatine intake is accompanied by various health risks.
    •General public may benefit from creatine to prevent and manage health conditions.
    •Supplementation could be sound strategy to supply enough creatine in food systems.

    Abstract

    Creatine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid available from various animal-based foods or synthesized endogenously in the human body. A number of recent population-based studies demonstrate a lower-than-expected dietary creatine intake across age- and gender-specific cohorts, with low creatine consumption accompanied by various health risks. Those studies suggest that the general public may benefit from creatine to prevent and manage various health conditions or to ensure advanced growth. Favorable safety and promising impact of supplemental creatine on human well-being and functioning emanated from plenty of small-sampled interventional studies perhaps suggest a need for recommending creatine to the general public. In this opinion paper, I have outlined the possible rationales for endorsing supplemental creatine ubiquitously, and discussed opportunities and challenges for population-wide creatine use.

    Full paper: https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...6464621002176?
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  5. #485
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    I see that the OP says “ Most cost effective way to take creatine is as a powder mixed into a warm liquid.”
    Sorry if I missed this somewhere (I dug through a few pages in the thread)- are capsules ok from an effectiveness standpoint? I think I’d prefer it for convenience. I ordered ON “Micronized Creatine Monohydrate Capsules”. I didn’t see capsules that were creapure. The creapure powder I saw was also expensive- 200 servings for $50, while the ON capsules were 150 servings for $23.
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  6. #486
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    Originally Posted by mlift11 View Post
    I see that the OP says “ Most cost effective way to take creatine is as a powder mixed into a warm liquid.”
    Sorry if I missed this somewhere (I dug through a few pages in the thread)- are capsules ok from an effectiveness standpoint? I think I’d prefer it for convenience. I ordered ON “Micronized Creatine Monohydrate Capsules”. I didn’t see capsules that were creapure. The creapure powder I saw was also expensive- 200 servings for $50, while the ON capsules were 150 servings for $23.
    If it does not say Creapure, it's likely not creapure, what I tend to use and recommend. Capsules should be ok (as long as they don't cause GI issues as they do for some), but are a big waste of $ for the convenience, and you have to make sure number of capsules taken = 3-5g per day, which may may not be the same as the serving size on the bottle... Costs of creatine are skyrocketing if companies can get it all right now, so expect to see price increases, which I warned about a while ago.
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  7. #487
    Registered User mlift11's Avatar
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    Originally Posted by WillBrink View Post
    If it does not say Creapure, it's likely not creapure, what I tend to use and recommend. Capsules should be ok (as long as they don't cause GI issues as they do for some), but are a big waste of $ for the convenience, and you have to make sure number of capsules taken = 3-5g per day, which may may not be the same as the serving size on the bottle... Costs of creatine are skyrocketing if companies can get it all right now, so expect to see price increases, which I warned about a while ago.
    Thanks. From what I was seeing, per-serving costs (assuming a 3-5g serving) were $.15 for the ON capsules I bought, but $.25 for the cheapest creapure I see on Amazon. I can try to keep in mind for future purchases that creapure may be more effective, even if it comes at a significant price premium.
    I’m assuming a large share of the research you’ve presented applies to standard creatine monohydrate, such as that that I’m buying from ON
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  8. #488
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    Originally Posted by mlift11 View Post
    Thanks. From what I was seeing, per-serving costs (assuming a 3-5g serving) were $.15 for the ON capsules I bought, but $.25 for the cheapest creapure I see on Amazon. I can try to keep in mind for future purchases that creapure may be more effective, even if it comes at a significant price premium.
    I’m assuming a large share of the research you’ve presented applies to standard creatine monohydrate, such as that that I’m buying from ON
    99% of all the research done on creatine has been done with the monohydrate form yes.
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  9. #489
    Registered User moraman's Avatar
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    Originally Posted by WillBrink View Post
    One more time people, timing does not matter:

    J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2021 Sep;61(9):1219-1225.

    Timing of creatine supplementation does not influence gains in unilateral muscle hypertrophy or strength from resistance training in young adults: a within-subject design

    Abstract

    Background: Creatine supplementation, in close proximity to resistance training sessions, may be an important strategy to augment muscle accretion and strength. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of creatine supplementation immediately before compared to immediately after unilateral resistance training on hypertrophy and strength.

    Methods: Using a counter-balanced, double-blind, repeated measures within-subject design, ten recreationally active participants (7 males; 3 females; age: 23±5 years; height: 174±9 cm; body mass: 73.5±9.7 kg) were randomized to supplement with creatine monohydrate (0.1 g/kg of body mass) immediately before and placebo immediately after training one side of the body and placebo immediately before and creatine immediately after training the other side of the body on alternate days. Resistance training consisted of elbow flexion and knee extension (3-6 sets at 80% 1-repetition maximum [1-RM]) for 8 weeks. Prior to and following training, muscle thickness (elbow flexors and leg extensors; ultrasonography) and strength (1-RM for the elbow flexors and knee extensors) was assessed.

    Results: There was a significant increase over time for muscle thickness, strength, and relative strength (P<0.01), with no differences between creatine ingestion strategies. Total training volume performed was similar between conditions (P=0.56).

    Conclusions: Creatine supplementation, immediately before or immediately after unilateral resistance training, produces similar gains in muscle hypertrophy and strength in young adults.
    What about general timing? The conclusion references immediately before or after. Suppose one wants to mix it in with morning greens but does not work out until 8-10 hours later? Presumably the creatine is still storing...
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  10. #490
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    Originally Posted by moraman View Post
    What about general timing? The conclusion references immediately before or after. Suppose one wants to mix it in with morning greens but does not work out until 8-10 hours later? Presumably the creatine is still storing...
    Creatine just sits in your muscles, it's about average saturation levels which are fairly static over time. So timing is a non issue AFAIK
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  11. #491
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    A good review of potential value of creatine as anti-catabolic and anti inflammatory in various populations:

    Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Catabolic Effects of Creatine Supplementation: A Brief Review

    Abstract

    It is well established that creatine supplementation, primarily when combined with resistance training, significantly increases measures of muscle mass and performance (primarily strength). Emerging research also indicates that creatine supplementation may have favorable effects on measures of bone biology. These anabolic adaptations may be related to creatine influencing cellular hydration status, high-energy phosphate metabolism, growth factors, muscle protein kinetics, and the bone remodeling process.

    Accumulating research also suggests that creatine supplementation has anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic properties, which may help create a favorable environment for muscle and bone accretion and recovery from exercise. Creatine supplementation has the ability to decrease markers of inflammation and possibly attenuate cancerous tumor growth progression. From a musculoskeletal perspective, there is some evidence to show that creatine supplementation reduces measures of muscle protein catabolism (primarily in males) and bone resorption when combined with resistance training.

    The purpose of this brief review is to summarize the current body of literature examining the potential anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects of creatine supplementation across various research populations.

    Full paper:

    https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/14/3/544/htm
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  12. #492
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    An excellent review on an important issue, as aging, various diseases, CF, etc are tied to Mitochondrial Dysfunction:

    Role of Creatine Supplementation in Conditions Involving Mitochondrial Dysfunction: A Narrative Review

    Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 529;

    Abstract

    Creatine monohydrate (CrM) is one of the most widely used nutritional supplements among active individuals and athletes to improve high-intensity exercise performance and training adaptations. However, research suggests that CrM supplementation may also serve as a therapeutic tool in the management of some chronic and traumatic diseases. Creatine supplementation has been reported to improve high-energy phosphate availability as well as have antioxidative, neuroprotective, anti-lactatic, and calcium-homoeostatic effects. These characteristics may have a direct impact on mitochondrion’s survival and health particularly during stressful conditions such as ischemia and injury. This narrative review discusses current scientific evidence for use or supplemental CrM as a therapeutic agent during conditions associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Based on this analysis, it appears that CrM supplementation may have a role in improving cellular bioenergetics in several mitochondrial dysfunction-related diseases, ischemic conditions, and injury pathology and thereby could provide therapeutic benefit in the management of these conditions. However, larger clinical trials are needed to explore these potential therapeutic applications before definitive conclusions can be drawn.

    Cont:

    https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/14/3/529/htm
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  13. #493
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    Good Morning! I've read that doctors often use creatinine levels (blood lab tests) as an indicator of kidney issues. I've also read that creatine supplementation will raise creatinine levels. I am not reading that as a problem other than as a false flag on the kidney issue thing?

    I've also read that creatine monohydrate will NOT raise creatinine levels but all the other kinds of creatine WILL?

    I take 2 gm of Creatine HCL. I'm thinking of switching to Monohydrate for my lab tests coming up this summer? (Or quitting? But I hate to as I really feel it's helped.)
    Last edited by joewattie; 02-21-2022 at 04:08 AM.
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  14. #494
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    Originally Posted by joewattie View Post
    Good Morning! I've read that doctors often use creatinine levels (blood lab tests) as an indicator of kidney issues. I've also read that creatine supplementation will raise creatinine levels. I am not reading that as a problem other than as a false flag on the kidney issue thing?

    I've also read that creatine monohydrate will NOT raise creatinine levels but all the other kinds of creatine WILL?

    I take 2 gm of Creatine HCL. I'm thinking of switching to Monohydrate for my lab tests coming up this summer? (Or quitting? But I hate to as I really feel it's helped.)
    Been covered various places in this thread, but in a small % of people, creatine can raise creatinine, which can be an indication vs a cause (that's an essential distinction to understand...) of kidney dysfunction. In that case, I tell people to stop creatine for 2-3 weeks, hydrate well, re test. So far, 100% of the time, creatinine was back to normal.

    There's now extensive amount of research showing creatine does not cause stress to kidneys of healthy people, much less damage, much of which I posted in this thread.

    But, one should not ignore elevated creatinine levels as it's often the early indicator for a doc there may be a kidney issue to address.

    I'm not aware of one type of creatine being more/less problematic in that respect, but it's moot as the one form with 99% of the actual data demonstrating benefits, is monohydrate, and the form people should use.
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  15. #495
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    Originally Posted by WillBrink View Post
    Been covered various places in this thread ...
    Probably but 17 pages of popularity sure do make it hard to find :-)

    Originally Posted by WillBrink View Post
    ... small % of people, creatine can raise creatinine, which can be an INDICATION vs a cause (that's an essential distinction to understand...) of kidney dysfunction.
    Lucky me. There's a very strong correlation between my recent use of creatine and my last two blood tests.

    Originally Posted by WillBrink View Post
    I tell people to stop creatine for 2-3 weeks, hydrate well, re test. So far, 100% of the time, creatinine was back to normal.
    I will do exactly that before my next lab test this summer.

    Originally Posted by WillBrink View Post
    There's now extensive amount of research showing creatine does not cause stress to kidneys of healthy people, much less damage, much of which I posted in this thread. But, one should not ignore elevated creatinine levels as it's often the early indicator for a doc there may be a kidney issue to address.
    Totally agree.

    Originally Posted by WillBrink View Post
    I'm not aware of one type of creatine being more/less problematic in that respect, but it's moot as the one form with 99% of the actual data demonstrating benefits, is monohydrate, and the form people should use.
    I found a couple of "studies", lots of polysyllabic words so I could be wrong, that suggested that monohydrate won't spike the blood tests like the others.

    (Monohydrate didn't agree with my tummy so I use HCL. Anecdotally, HCL seems just as effective.)

    Thank you VERY much for your response. I WILL follow your advice for my next lab!
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    Originally Posted by joewattie View Post
    I found a couple of "studies", lots of polysyllabic words so I could be wrong, that suggested that monohydrate won't spike the blood tests like the others.
    I can take a look if you want post them, but everything I was discussing was related Mono form.

    Originally Posted by joewattie View Post
    (Monohydrate didn't agree with my tummy so I use HCL. Anecdotally, HCL seems just as effective.)
    Pre dissolve in hot liquid. That solves the problem almost every time. Unlike some, HCL is not a complete scam at least, but more $ for less creatine gram for gram.


    Originally Posted by joewattie View Post
    Thank you VERY much for your response. I WILL follow your advice for my next lab!
    If still elevated than it's not the creatine and follow as needed.
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    Good review of Creatine and brain health/function

    Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Brain Function and Health
    Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 921;

    Abstract

    While the vast majority of research involving creatine supplementation has focused on skeletal muscle, there is a small body of accumulating research that has focused on creatine and the brain. Preliminary studies indicate that creatine supplementation (and guanidinoacetic acid; GAA) has the ability to increase brain creatine content in humans.

    Furthermore, creatine has shown some promise for attenuating symptoms of concussion, mild traumatic brain injury and depression but its effect on neurodegenerative diseases appears to be lacking.

    The purpose of this narrative review is to summarize the current body of research pertaining to creatine supplementation on total creatine and phophorylcreatine (PCr) content, explore GAA as an alternative or adjunct to creatine supplementation on brain creatine uptake, assess the impact of creatine on cognition with a focus on sleep deprivation, discuss the effects of creatine supplementation on a variety of neurological and mental health conditions, and outline recent advances on creatine supplementation as a neuroprotective supplement following traumatic brain injury or concussion.

    https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/14/5/921/htm
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    Good review of Creatine and brain health/function 🧠

    Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Brain Function and Health
    Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 921;

    Abstract

    While the vast majority of research involving creatine supplementation has focused on skeletal muscle, there is a small body of accumulating research that has focused on creatine and the brain. Preliminary studies indicate that creatine supplementation (and guanidinoacetic acid; GAA) has the ability to increase brain creatine content in humans.

    Furthermore, creatine has shown some promise for attenuating symptoms of concussion, mild traumatic brain injury and depression but its effect on neurodegenerative diseases appears to be lacking.

    The purpose of this narrative review is to summarize the current body of research pertaining to creatine supplementation on total creatine and phophorylcreatine (PCr) content, explore GAA as an alternative or adjunct to creatine supplementation on brain creatine uptake, assess the impact of creatine on cognition with a focus on sleep deprivation, discuss the effects of creatine supplementation on a variety of neurological and mental health conditions, and outline recent advances on creatine supplementation as a neuroprotective supplement following traumatic brain injury or concussion.

    https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/14/5/921/htm
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    A number of small studies suggest creatine can improve mood, brain metabolism, etc (1), but this is the first RCT of its kind I'm aware of with SSRI's:

    A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Oral Creatine Monohydrate Augmentation for Enhanced Response to a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor in Women With Major Depressive Disorder

    Abstract
    Objective

    Antidepressants targeting monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems, despite their immediate effects at the synaptic level, usually require several weeks of administration to achieve clinical efficacy. The authors propose a strategy of adding creatine monohydrate (creatine) to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) in the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder. Such augmentation may lead to a more rapid onset of antidepressant effects and a greater treatment response, potentially by restoring brain bioenergetics at the cellular level.

    Method

    Fifty-two women with major depressive disorder were enrolled in an 8-week double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial and randomly assigned to receive escitalopram in addition to either creatine (5 g/day, N=25) or placebo (N=27). Efficacy was primarily assessed by changes in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score.

    Results

    In comparison to the placebo augmentation group, patients receiving creatine augmentation showed significantly greater improvements in HAM-D score, as early as week 2 of treatment. This differential improvement favoring creatine was maintained at weeks 4 and 8. There were no differences between treatment groups in the proportion of patients who discontinued treatment prematurely (creatine: N=8, 32.0%; placebo: N=5, 18.5%) or in the overall frequency of all reported adverse events (creatine: 36 events; placebo: 45 events).

    Conclusions

    The current study suggests that creatine augmentation of SSRI treatment may be a promising therapeutic approach that exhibits more rapid and efficacious responses in women with major depressive disorder.

    Source:

    https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi....2012.12010009

    (1) https://brinkzone.com/creatine-and-depression-review/
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    An excellent review on diseases/conditions associated with low tissue creatine as therapeutic targets:

    Low Tissue Creatine: A Therapeutic Target in Clinical Nutrition

    Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1230

    Abstract

    Low tissue creatine characterizes many conditions, including neurodegenerative, cardiopulmonary, and metabolic diseases, with a magnitude of creatine shortfall often corresponds well to a disorder’s severity. A non-invasive monitoring of tissue metabolism with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) might be a feasible tool to evaluate suboptimal levels of creatine for both predictive, diagnostic, and therapeutic purposes. This mini review paper summarizes disorders with deficient creatine levels and provides arguments for assessing and employing tissue creatine as a relevant target in clinical nutrition.

    https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/14/6/1230/htm
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    I have gastrointestinal problems while I sleep, any advice?
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    Originally Posted by infernus360 View Post
    I have gastrointestinal problems while I sleep, any advice?
    What makes you think this is being caused by creatine?
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    Originally Posted by SuffolkPunch View Post
    What makes you think this is being caused by creatine?
    I have never had these problems, and since I take it that happens to me some days. creatine is not creapure, is it possible that it is?
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    Originally Posted by infernus360 View Post
    I have gastrointestinal problems while I sleep, any advice?
    Doubting it's the creatine, but have you tried pre dissolving in hot liquid? Obviously take the creatine far from sleep time too may help.
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    Originally Posted by WillBrink View Post
    Doubting it's the creatine, but have you tried pre dissolving in hot liquid? Obviously take the creatine far from sleep time too may help.
    I'm going to take it with hot water, thx for the advice,
    I'll tell you if it works
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    Originally Posted by infernus360 View Post
    I'm going to take it with hot water, thx for the advice,
    I'll tell you if it works
    The few people who have GI issues, that seems to cure it for most.
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    Originally Posted by WillBrink View Post
    The few people who have GI issues, that seems to cure it for most.
    I'm taking it with beta alanine anyway, though I don't think that's the problem
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    Originally Posted by infernus360 View Post
    I have gastrointestinal problems while I sleep, any advice?
    I'd be curious as to which type of creatine, e.g., monohydrate or something else? And how much you take? We live in a world of "if some is good then more must be better" but ... too much of anything can have issues.
    joe Henry
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    Originally Posted by joewattie View Post
    I'd be curious as to which type of creatine, e.g., monohydrate or something else? And how much you take? We live in a world of "if some is good then more must be better" but ... too much of anything can have issues.
    7grs not much. Creatine monohydrate (not creapure)
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    I'm going to switch from powder to tablets (mostly for convenience). I've been using Optimum Nutrition powder and had a look at their tablets but they seem expensive (£30 for 200 @ 2,500mg) compared with another product (WeightWorld £18 for 270 tablets @ 3,000mg). Both are monohydrate.
    I guess my question is are all tablets created equal? In what circumstances would the more expensive option be the better option?
    I would post links but don't think i can due to my low post count
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