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  1. #481
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    Interesting study there:

    Temporal trends in dietary creatine intake from 1999 to 2018: an ecological study with 89,161 participants


    Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition volume 18, Article number: 53 (2021)


    Abstract
    Introduction

    We described here the annual variations in mean dietary creatine intake from 1999 to 2018 in U.S. children and adults using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database.

    Methods

    Dietary intake information from ten consecutive rounds of NHANES (from 1999 to 2000 to 2017–2018) was extracted for a total of 89,161 respondents aged 0–85 years. Individual values for total grams of creatine consumed per day were computed using the average amount of creatine (3.88 g/kg) across all creatine-containing food sources.

    Results

    The average daily intake of creatine across the entire sample was 0.70 ± 0.78 g (95% confidence interval [CI], from 0.69 to 0.71) and 13.1 ± 16.5 mg/kg body weight (95% CI, from 13.0 to 13.2). A significant negative trend for dietary creatine intake was found in infants (r = − 0.019; P = 0.042), and children and adolescents (r = − 0.024; P < 0.001).

    Conclusions

    Our findings suggest a variation in dietary creatine intake in the U.S. population during the past 20 years, with young persons tend to consume fewer grams of creatine per day from 1999 onwards. Long-running studies are highly warranted to assess possible health consequences of variable creatine intake in human nutrition.

    Source:

    https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/arti...0-021-00453-1?
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  2. #482
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    One more time people, timing does not matter:

    J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2021 Sep;61(9):1219-1225.

    Timing of creatine supplementation does not influence gains in unilateral muscle hypertrophy or strength from resistance training in young adults: a within-subject design

    Abstract

    Background: Creatine supplementation, in close proximity to resistance training sessions, may be an important strategy to augment muscle accretion and strength. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of creatine supplementation immediately before compared to immediately after unilateral resistance training on hypertrophy and strength.

    Methods: Using a counter-balanced, double-blind, repeated measures within-subject design, ten recreationally active participants (7 males; 3 females; age: 23±5 years; height: 174±9 cm; body mass: 73.5±9.7 kg) were randomized to supplement with creatine monohydrate (0.1 g/kg of body mass) immediately before and placebo immediately after training one side of the body and placebo immediately before and creatine immediately after training the other side of the body on alternate days. Resistance training consisted of elbow flexion and knee extension (3-6 sets at 80% 1-repetition maximum [1-RM]) for 8 weeks. Prior to and following training, muscle thickness (elbow flexors and leg extensors; ultrasonography) and strength (1-RM for the elbow flexors and knee extensors) was assessed.

    Results: There was a significant increase over time for muscle thickness, strength, and relative strength (P<0.01), with no differences between creatine ingestion strategies. Total training volume performed was similar between conditions (P=0.56).

    Conclusions: Creatine supplementation, immediately before or immediately after unilateral resistance training, produces similar gains in muscle hypertrophy and strength in young adults.

    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34610729/
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  3. #483
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    😉 Creatine News 🤓

    I have always considered creatine conditionally essential myself:

    Perspective: Creatine, a Conditionally Essential Nutrient: Building the Case Advances in Nutrition 2021 October 18

    Creatine is a major component of energy metabolism that is abundant in human skeletal muscle, brain, and heart. Either synthesized internally or provided via an omnivorous diet, creatine is required for normal growth, development, and health.

    Recent advances in creatine nutrition and physiology suggest that the quantity of creatine the body naturally synthesizes is not sufficient to meet human needs. As a result, humans have to obtain enough creatine from the diet, which nominates creatine as an essential nutrient in certain circumstances.

    In this article, we summarize arguments that creatine should be considered a conditionally essential nutrient for humans and propose several questions that should be addressed in future research.

    https://read.qxmd.com/read/34662902/...lding-the-case
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  4. #484
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    Just out, a review paper as to why there’s likely no one who will not benefit from optimizing creatine tissue levels:

    Creatine as a food supplement for the general population

    Journal of Functional Foods
    Volume 83, August 2021, 104568

    Highlights

    •Creatine is non-proteinogenic amino acid available from various animal-based foods.
    •Lower-than-expected dietary creatine intake is accompanied by various health risks.
    •General public may benefit from creatine to prevent and manage health conditions.
    •Supplementation could be sound strategy to supply enough creatine in food systems.

    Abstract

    Creatine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid available from various animal-based foods or synthesized endogenously in the human body. A number of recent population-based studies demonstrate a lower-than-expected dietary creatine intake across age- and gender-specific cohorts, with low creatine consumption accompanied by various health risks. Those studies suggest that the general public may benefit from creatine to prevent and manage various health conditions or to ensure advanced growth. Favorable safety and promising impact of supplemental creatine on human well-being and functioning emanated from plenty of small-sampled interventional studies perhaps suggest a need for recommending creatine to the general public. In this opinion paper, I have outlined the possible rationales for endorsing supplemental creatine ubiquitously, and discussed opportunities and challenges for population-wide creatine use.

    Full paper: https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...6464621002176?
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  5. #485
    Registered User mlift11's Avatar
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    I see that the OP says “ Most cost effective way to take creatine is as a powder mixed into a warm liquid.”
    Sorry if I missed this somewhere (I dug through a few pages in the thread)- are capsules ok from an effectiveness standpoint? I think I’d prefer it for convenience. I ordered ON “Micronized Creatine Monohydrate Capsules”. I didn’t see capsules that were creapure. The creapure powder I saw was also expensive- 200 servings for $50, while the ON capsules were 150 servings for $23.
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  6. #486
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    Originally Posted by mlift11 View Post
    I see that the OP says “ Most cost effective way to take creatine is as a powder mixed into a warm liquid.”
    Sorry if I missed this somewhere (I dug through a few pages in the thread)- are capsules ok from an effectiveness standpoint? I think I’d prefer it for convenience. I ordered ON “Micronized Creatine Monohydrate Capsules”. I didn’t see capsules that were creapure. The creapure powder I saw was also expensive- 200 servings for $50, while the ON capsules were 150 servings for $23.
    If it does not say Creapure, it's likely not creapure, what I tend to use and recommend. Capsules should be ok (as long as they don't cause GI issues as they do for some), but are a big waste of $ for the convenience, and you have to make sure number of capsules taken = 3-5g per day, which may may not be the same as the serving size on the bottle... Costs of creatine are skyrocketing if companies can get it all right now, so expect to see price increases, which I warned about a while ago.
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  7. #487
    Registered User mlift11's Avatar
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    Originally Posted by WillBrink View Post
    If it does not say Creapure, it's likely not creapure, what I tend to use and recommend. Capsules should be ok (as long as they don't cause GI issues as they do for some), but are a big waste of $ for the convenience, and you have to make sure number of capsules taken = 3-5g per day, which may may not be the same as the serving size on the bottle... Costs of creatine are skyrocketing if companies can get it all right now, so expect to see price increases, which I warned about a while ago.
    Thanks. From what I was seeing, per-serving costs (assuming a 3-5g serving) were $.15 for the ON capsules I bought, but $.25 for the cheapest creapure I see on Amazon. I can try to keep in mind for future purchases that creapure may be more effective, even if it comes at a significant price premium.
    I’m assuming a large share of the research you’ve presented applies to standard creatine monohydrate, such as that that I’m buying from ON
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  8. #488
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    Originally Posted by mlift11 View Post
    Thanks. From what I was seeing, per-serving costs (assuming a 3-5g serving) were $.15 for the ON capsules I bought, but $.25 for the cheapest creapure I see on Amazon. I can try to keep in mind for future purchases that creapure may be more effective, even if it comes at a significant price premium.
    I’m assuming a large share of the research you’ve presented applies to standard creatine monohydrate, such as that that I’m buying from ON
    99% of all the research done on creatine has been done with the monohydrate form yes.
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  9. #489
    Registered User moraman's Avatar
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    Originally Posted by WillBrink View Post
    One more time people, timing does not matter:

    J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2021 Sep;61(9):1219-1225.

    Timing of creatine supplementation does not influence gains in unilateral muscle hypertrophy or strength from resistance training in young adults: a within-subject design

    Abstract

    Background: Creatine supplementation, in close proximity to resistance training sessions, may be an important strategy to augment muscle accretion and strength. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of creatine supplementation immediately before compared to immediately after unilateral resistance training on hypertrophy and strength.

    Methods: Using a counter-balanced, double-blind, repeated measures within-subject design, ten recreationally active participants (7 males; 3 females; age: 23±5 years; height: 174±9 cm; body mass: 73.5±9.7 kg) were randomized to supplement with creatine monohydrate (0.1 g/kg of body mass) immediately before and placebo immediately after training one side of the body and placebo immediately before and creatine immediately after training the other side of the body on alternate days. Resistance training consisted of elbow flexion and knee extension (3-6 sets at 80% 1-repetition maximum [1-RM]) for 8 weeks. Prior to and following training, muscle thickness (elbow flexors and leg extensors; ultrasonography) and strength (1-RM for the elbow flexors and knee extensors) was assessed.

    Results: There was a significant increase over time for muscle thickness, strength, and relative strength (P<0.01), with no differences between creatine ingestion strategies. Total training volume performed was similar between conditions (P=0.56).

    Conclusions: Creatine supplementation, immediately before or immediately after unilateral resistance training, produces similar gains in muscle hypertrophy and strength in young adults.
    What about general timing? The conclusion references immediately before or after. Suppose one wants to mix it in with morning greens but does not work out until 8-10 hours later? Presumably the creatine is still storing...
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  10. #490
    Moderator SuffolkPunch's Avatar
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    Originally Posted by moraman View Post
    What about general timing? The conclusion references immediately before or after. Suppose one wants to mix it in with morning greens but does not work out until 8-10 hours later? Presumably the creatine is still storing...
    Creatine just sits in your muscles, it's about average saturation levels which are fairly static over time. So timing is a non issue AFAIK
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