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  1. #451
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    Small but potentially valuable study:

    Creatine supplementation plus neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves lower-limb muscle strength and quality of life in hemodialysis men


    Einstein (Sao Paulo). 2020; 18: eCE5623.
    Published online 2020 Nov 18. doi: 10.31744/einstein_journal/2020CE5623

    Hemodialysis leads to sarcopenia, a syndrome characterized by the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass with reduction of physical performance.(,1) Likewise, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been used as strategy for improvement in muscle mass and strength.(,2,3) We performed a prospective, short-term and single-arm study that evaluated adult men (38.18±12.86 years) undergoing hemodialysis for 40.73±36.98 months ( Table 1 ). Of 15 patients, four women were excluded and 11 men met the inclusion criteria ( Figure 1A ).

    Cont:

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7687919/
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  2. #452
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    A friend of mine told me to take 2 pills before and 2 pills after workout on training days. On non-training days just 2 pills.... but on the box it says 1 before 1 after :-/ Im asking about this product https://bg.bodybuilding.com/store/aa...l?skuId=AAP003 (120 tablet size). I am 183cm/6'0 tall and 78kg/174 pounds.
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  3. #453
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    Good review on species specific effects of creatine and the wide range of potential health/med benefits:

    Species-specific responses to creatine supplementation

    creatine is a naturally occurring guanidino compound that is synthesized in the liver and kidney or obtained in small quantities from the diet primarily from meat and fish. Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation (e.g., 20 g/day × 5 days) has been reported to increase muscle creatine and phosphocreatine (PC) content by 15-40%, enhance the cellular bioenergetics of the phosphagen system, improve the shuttling of high-energy phosphates between the mitochondria and cytosol via the creatine phosphate shuttle, and enhance the activity of various metabolic pathways influenced by creatine kinases. For this reason, there has been significant interest in determining whether creatine supplementation can enhance exercise and/or training adaptations as well as provide therapeutic benefit for various patient populations. Most studies indicate that short-term creatine supplementation can improve high-intensity exercise performance and improve gains in strength, power, and muscle mass during training. Consequently, creatine has become a popular nutritional supplement among athletes. More recently, the potential therapeutic benefits of creatine supplementation have been evaluated in patients with a variety of metabolic disorders, neuromuscular diseases, and recovery after musculoskeletal injury. These findings have indicated that creatine may serve as a promising ergogenic aid for athletes as well as offer some clinical benefit for certain patient populations.

    Cont:

    https://journals.physiology.org/doi/...gu.00375.2003?
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  4. #454
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    Originally Posted by MaDFroG88 View Post
    A friend of mine told me to take 2 pills before and 2 pills after workout on training days. On non-training days just 2 pills.... but on the box it says 1 before 1 after :-/ Im asking about this product https://bg.bodybuilding.com/store/aa...l?skuId=AAP003 (120 tablet size). I am 183cm/6'0 tall and 78kg/174 pounds.
    Read OP? Just use CM...
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  5. #455
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    Great review by two gents I know well. Remember, when someone claims creatine is "just for gym types" or claims it's some how toxic, they are 100% wrong on both:

    Creatine in Health and Disease

    Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020447

    Abstract

    Although creatine has been mostly studied as an ergogenic aid for exercise, training, and sport, several health and potential therapeutic benefits have been reported. This is because creatine plays a critical role in cellular metabolism, particularly during metabolically stressed states, and limitations in the ability to transport and/or store creatine can impair metabolism. Moreover, increasing availability of creatine in tissue may enhance cellular metabolism and thereby lessen the severity of injury and/or disease conditions, particularly when oxygen availability is compromised. This systematic review assesses the peer-reviewed scientific and medical evidence related to creatine’s role in promoting general health as we age and how creatine supplementation has been used as a nutritional strategy to help individuals recover from injury and/or manage chronic disease. Additionally, it provides reasonable conclusions about the role of creatine on health and disease based on current scientific evidence. Based on this analysis, it can be concluded that creatine supplementation has several health and therapeutic benefits throughout the lifespan.

    https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/13/2/447
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  6. #456
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    J ust out, a potentially important paper:

    Creatine Metabolism in Female Reproduction, Pregnancy and Newborn Health

    Abstract

    Creatine metabolism is an important component of cellular energy homeostasis. Via the creatine kinase circuit, creatine derived from our diet or synthesized endogenously provides spatial and temporal maintenance of intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production; this is particularly important for cells with high or fluctuating energy demands. The use of this circuit by tissues within the female reproductive system, as well as the placenta and the developing fetus during pregnancy is apparent throughout the literature, with some studies linking perturbations in creatine metabolism to reduced fertility and poor pregnancy outcomes.

    Maternal dietary creatine supplementation during pregnancy as a safeguard against hypoxia-induced perinatal injury, particularly that of the brain, has also been widely studied in pre-clinical in vitro and small animal models. However, there is still no consensus on whether creatine is essential for successful reproduction.

    This review consolidates the available literature on creatine metabolism in female reproduction, pregnancy and the early neonatal period. Creatine metabolism is discussed in relation to cellular bioenergetics and de novo synthesis, as well as the potential to use dietary creatine in a reproductive setting. We highlight the apparent knowledge gaps and the research “road forward” to understand, and then utilize, creatine to improve reproductive health and perinatal outcomes.

    Paper: https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/13/2/490
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  7. #457
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    An important paper on the potential use of Creatine in Post-Viral Fatigue Syndrome and Diagnosis:

    Diagnostic and Pharmacological Potency of Creatine in Post-Viral Fatigue Syndrome

    Abstract

    Post-viral fatigue syndrome (PVFS) is a widespread chronic neurological disease with no definite etiological factor(s), no actual diagnostic test, and no approved pharmacological treatment, therapy, or cure. Among other features, PVFS could be accompanied by various irregularities in creatine metabolism, perturbing either tissue levels of creatine in the brain, the rates of phosphocreatine resynthesis in the skeletal muscle, or the concentrations of the enzyme creatine kinase in the blood. Furthermore, supplemental creatine and related guanidino compounds appear to impact both patient- and clinician-reported outcomes in syndromes and maladies with chronic fatigue. This paper critically overviews the most common disturbances in creatine metabolism in various PVFS populations, summarizes human trials on dietary creatine and creatine analogs in the syndrome, and discusses new frontiers and open questions for using creatine in a post-COVID-19 world.

    Full paper:

    https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/13/2/503/htm
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  8. #458
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    Hot off the presses y'all:

    Potential of Creatine in Glucose Management and Diabetes

    Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 570;

    Abstract

    Creatine is one of the most popular supplements worldwide, and it is frequently used by both athletic and non-athletic populations to improve power, strength, muscle mass and performance. A growing body of evidence has been identified potential therapeutic effects of creatine in a wide variety of clinical conditions, such as cancer, muscle dystrophy and neurodegenerative disorders.

    Evidence has suggested that creatine supplementation alone, and mainly in combination with exercise training, may improve glucose metabolism in health individuals and insulin-resistant individuals, such as in those with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Creatine itself may stimulate insulin secretion in vitro, improve muscle glycogen stores and ameliorate hyperglycemia in animals. In addition, exercise induces numerous metabolic benefits, including increases in insulin-independent muscle glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity.

    It has been speculated that creatine supplementation combined with exercise training could result in additional improvements in glucose metabolism when compared with each intervention separately. The possible mechanism underlying the effects of combined exercise and creatine supplementation is an enhanced glucose transport into muscle cell by type 4 glucose transporter (GLUT-4) translocation to sarcolemma. Although preliminary findings from small-scale trials involving patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are promising, the efficacy of creatine for improving glycemic control is yet to be confirmed.

    In this review, we aim to explore the possible therapeutic role of creatine supplementation on glucose management and as a potential anti-diabetic intervention, summarizing the current knowledge and highlighting the research gaps.

    https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/13/2/570/htm
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  9. #459
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    Review paper on Monohydrate vs other forms. I covered that topic over a decade ago (1), but new review paper concludes as expected, CM, is still the way to go:

    Efficacy of Alternative Forms of Creatine Supplementation on Improving Performance and Body Composition in Healthy Subjects

    Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research: February 11, 2021

    Abstract

    Novel forms of creatine have appeared in the marketplace with substantial claims of improved efficacy compared to creatine monohydrate (CrM). The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review on alternative forms of creatine to determine (a) whether they are effective ergogenic aids and (b) whether they outperform CrM. A separate comparison was conducted to determine average cost of various forms of creatine. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar were systematically reviewed according to PRISMA guidelines. The design of the review was set to answer the PICOS model (participants, interventions, comparators, outcomes, and study design).

    Seventeen randomized placebo controlled clinical trials examining exercise performance outcomes and body composition were included in the analysis. Magnesium-creatine chelate and creatine citrate, malate, ethyl ester, nitrate, and pyruvate were the only forms researched in the literature. Of these studies, only 3 studies compared the alternative creatine form to CrM, making it difficult to compare efficacy to CrM. There were no consistent findings of performance enhancement among alternative forms of creatine when compared to placebo.

    A review of the marketplace shows that CrM is the lowest cost form of creatine. Due to the paucity of studies on alternative forms of creatine as well as high prices on the market of these alternative forms, CrM remains as the most extensively studied form of creatine that shows efficacy, safety, and lowest cost to consumer.

    Source:

    https://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/A...CJnet8FAY2JerA

    (1) https://brinkzone.com/the-creatine-grave-yard/
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  10. #460
    anonymous
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    Depression / Anxiety

    Has it been discussed here about the use of creatine and the apparent susceptibility of depression or anxiety for those with mental illness?

    Lovely OP btw thank you v much.
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  11. #461
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    Originally Posted by Stormbitch View Post
    Has it been discussed here about the use of creatine and the apparent susceptibility of depression or anxiety for those with mental illness?

    Lovely OP btw thank you v much.
    All the data we have, some of which I have posted in this thread, strongly suggests improved mood, reduced depression, etc. There's no data suggesting increased susceptibility of depression or anxiety. Quite the opposite in fact.
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  12. #462
    anonymous
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    Just testing you mate....

    I found these:

    'Creatine may interact with other neurotransmitter systems, such as the monoamines and adenosine"

    and

    'In depressed women, adding creatine to an SSRI seems to enhance the medication's antidepressant effects"


    No harm in trying. I do however recall having some massively weird anxiety turns on whey supplements, after coming on here the boys and girls suggested it may be something else chemical inside the supplement that was having contraindications with my SSRI medication.

    No harm in trying it again and monitoring my mood. I will soon know if I log it with more down days.

    However I also found there to be kidney pain and issues in some Amazon reviews: Some examples. forgive me if already covered.


    1.

    Tried it on 6-7 occasions after working out and each time gave me kidney pain at 1 scoop. Took it out of my shake and it stopped. Would rather use my regular brand than risk any long term kidney damage. Threw the whole bottle out.

    2.

    This is counterfeit!! DO NOT BUY. The packaging is different and I had to go to the ER with dehydration and a kidney issue. If you look at the Optimum Nutrition website the branding is a different color. DO NOT BUY.

    3. From Google.

    Increased creatinine levels will damage kidneys 8). Damaged Kidneys are non reversible. I think by now it is very obvious that creatinine that is ingested from the conversion of creatine-creatinine is toxic, dangerous and even life threatening.

    4.

    11 Oct 2010 — There is less concern today than there used to be about possible kidney damage from creatine, although there are reports of kidney damage, such as interstitial nephritis.


    5.

    16 May 2013 — In fact, there is compelling evidence indicating that high-protein diets can accelerate renal deterioration in individuals with chronic kidney disease ...

    6.

    8 Jan 2010 — We report a series of patients referred for investigation of kidney disease (both acute and chronic) in whom ingestion of protein and creatine ...

    I WILL SAY: that there are more studies saying the opposite.. but I do recall not creatine - but kidney stones on two occasions whilst using whey. ( different subject but anyway )


    Seems like a wonder drug like HGH. I am in. I will research the purest mix. If you know of one, even better.
    Last edited by Stormbitch; 02-17-2021 at 02:58 PM.
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  13. #463
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    Originally Posted by MaDFroG88 View Post
    A friend of mine told me to take 2 pills before and 2 pills after workout on training days. On non-training days just 2 pills.... but on the box it says 1 before 1 after :-/ Im asking about this product https://bg.bodybuilding.com/store/aa...l?skuId=AAP003 (120 tablet size). I am 183cm/6'0 tall and 78kg/174 pounds.
    Creatine pills are a waste of $ being the powder is tasteless and dirt cheap, and the only form of creatine I recommend, is monohydrate due all the studies using that form, and or the few studies that actually compared to CM to other forms, had CM the better choice.
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  14. #464
    INDUSTRY INSIDER WillBrink's Avatar
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    Hot off the presses:

    The Role of Creatine in the Development and Activation of Immune Responses

    Abstract

    The use of dietary supplements has become increasingly common over the past 20 years. Whereas supplements were formerly used mainly by elite athletes, age and fitness status no longer dictates who uses these substances. Indeed, many nutritional supplements are recommended by health care professionals to their patients. Creatine (CR) is a widely used dietary supplement that has been well-studied for its effects on performance and health. CR also aids in recovery from strenuous bouts of exercise by reducing inflammation. Although CR is considered to be very safe in recommended doses, a caveat is that a preponderance of the studies have focused upon young athletic individuals; thus there is limited knowledge regarding the effects of CR on children or the elderly.

    In this review, we examine the potential of CR to impact the host outside of the musculoskeletal system, specifically, the immune system, and discuss the available data demonstrating that CR can impact both innate and adaptive immune responses, together with how the effects on the immune system might be exploited to enhance human health.

    Full paper:

    https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/13/3/751/htm
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  15. #465
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    Cheers, Really good read.
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