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  1. #1
    Bad Back Brah tank2003's Avatar
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    B.S Exercise Physiology. ask me your training questions

    ****Update: Please allow more time for me to address your question. if I do not get to it with a day or so, then shoot me a message*****


    I made 2 similar threads in 2014 and they did pretty well. I feel like i've helped out a lot of you guys with my knowledge and experience. Here are my quals:
    B.S. Applied Clinical Exercise Physiology
    75% through an M.S. In exercise Physiology
    Month internship at the Olympic Training center in Colorado Springs in strength training division (they called it something else at the time though)
    Held 4 Personal Trainer certifications (AFAA, ACE (primary and advanced), ACSM)
    Started training at 14 years old, LEARNED to train around 19 years old and gains sky rocketed). I was only concerned with powerlifting, not bodybuilding.
    At my peak, i was 6'2" 243 lbs @ ~13% BF, Max power output: 2250 watts, VO2 Max = 65 mL/(kgmin) *70 mL/(kgmin) is considered elite. i hadn't run at all for almost a year but I am relentless when it comes to pushing myself in the gym or in a competition)
    TheDukeUSMC is my reference


    ***If i miss your question, then PM me and i'll address it that way***
    I'm going to start by listing some general knowledge and misunderstandings, just to get the juices flowing.

    1) Muscles do not Flex or Extend. Only joints do. Muscles contract.

    2)There are very little to no variations in the insertions of tendons. In this case, i'll refer to something i commonly see on the MISC. Some of you guys complain to having "high" bicep insertions. Claims are usually made about this when they exhibit the “gap” between the bend of the elbow and the muscle itself. In the case of the biceps brachii, it has 2 heads: Long head and short head. Hence the name, "'bi'ceps." The biceps share a common origin ("beginning"), but immediately divide/separate and join just below the head of the lower tuberosity and form a single "belly" and create the "ball" look that we know so well. The biceps have a dual insertion point: the radial Tuberosity and the bicipital aponeurosis (a band of connective tissue that attaches the muscle to the bone; in between the radius and ulna)(Insertion is "end" of a muscle and usually located at the most movable part of the bones). So logically if you look at the Radial Tuberosity, you would see that if there were a variability in insertion, it would not affect the visual appearance of the bicep. Insertion of the biceps brachii does not determine if person has the "gap" between the elblow joint and the peak of the head of the muscle.

    You might read/hear that you need to do certain exercises in order to bridge that gap, which is partly true. There is no exercise that isolates the gapped area. All you can really do is focus on hypertrophy to close that gap.

    3) Bench Press grip. Any remotely smart individual knows you should use a TRUE grip on BP rather than a false grip (the thumb is not wrapped around the bar) with high weight.
    *First lets take a look at grip strength. There are only 4 smalls muscles in the hand called the "lumbircals." They are small, weak and aide in contraction of tendons. So your grip strength comes solely from the forearm muscles, which conveys the necessity of forearm training. Now, I won't speak in absolutes on this, because i'm sure there is SOMEONE out there who can prove me wrong. Anyway, in most humans, you can achieve much more strength and compressional force when you utilize all 4 fingers and the thumb (the thumb is not technically speaking a finger because it only has 2 bones as opposed to the 3 found in its counterparts). Now, which of these choices do you think is more true:
    ----1) Your grip strength in the 4 fingers is sufficient enough to keep the BP bar in the proper position in the hands until extreme weight WITHOUT enough dorsiflexion to injure the bones and joints of the wrists (8 bones that make up the Metacarpal-phalangeal joint aka the wrist which has many more joints seeing as a joint is made when 2 or more bones articulate with each other)
    ----2) It is much more difficult for the BP bar to roll with enough force to translate over and past the thumb
    I thought so. You can use the false/suicide grip when repping because it can allow you to achieve a wider grip

    4) Creatine is a nitrogenous organic acid that is found in vertebrates. Its effect is increasing the production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate; ATP = Adenosine + Phosphate + Phosphate + Phosphate) which is the molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. Simply put, the more ATP, the more energy you have. A complete lack of ATP is called rigormortis. *This next statement isnt EXACTLY true, more like true in a round-a-bout way* Creatine boosts energy production by picking up a phosphate group, and transporting it to the Phosphate chain and cleaves off the third phosphate. When the phosphate is cleaved off, energy is released. The difference between Creatine Mono and other forms is the solubility in water. Creatine mono is not very water soluble and harder for the body to absorb. Creatine mono was the original form of creatine R&D'd and used by BB'ers. Later on in R&D, enzymes were added in order to increase solubility. Think of the differences as you would in the differences between Whey vs Whey isolate vs Hydrowhey. Here is something for you to read more on:http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/topicoftheweek67.htm

    5) Muscle Fiber types - Fast vs Slow Twitch
    I hear a lot of people complain about having more slow twitch muscles in relation to fast twitch. Muscle biopsies have concluded that we are all (unless you have a VERY rare condition that proves otherwise) born with a 50% Slow twitch/50% Fast twitch arrangement, and of the Fast twitch fibers, 50% of them are type 2a which are intermediate twitching fibers (this means they can adapt to take on the function of slow or fast twitch fibers.
    **1) Type 1 - Slow Oxidative -> Marathon runner -> Most prevalent in the legs; sustains motion for long periods of time
    **2) Type 2a - Intermediate Fibers - Fast Oxidative Glycolytic -> found in Sprinters; sustains motion for short periods of time
    **3) Type 2b - Fast Twitch - Fast Glycolytic - >Found in Weightlifters; can only sustain motion for VERY short periods of time 6) Stimulants

    6)A stimulant is any substance that increases metabolism. Most stimulants work by signaling the autonomic nervous system to increase the average body temperature. In order to keep the body from over heating and damaging organs, it works harder to release the heat, which is the only way to lose energy according to Sir Issac Newton's 1st Law of Thermodynamics (Energy cannot be created, nor destroyed, just lost in the form of heat. Logically, man-made machines are exempt from this law.)
    There are different types of legal stimulants: Nicotine (cigarettes), caffeine, amphetamines and ephedrine (found naturally and marketed as an herbal supplement and asthma reliever. When its in its purest form, it works just like an amphetamine but with a lesser effect). Most Exercise Supplements use forms of caffeine or ephedrine. Most stimulants will increase your body temp (heat increases atomic energy and instability) which in turn increases your energy levels in order to perform the necessary body processes to lower the temp. A lot of stimulants will almost completely kill your appetite.
    *A short term way to aid in Energy production is the use of Smelling salts or "Aromatic Spirits of Ammonia." It works by releasing ammonia gas, which triggers an inhalation reflex (that is, cause the muscles that control breathing to work faster) by irritating the mucous membranes of the nose and lungs. Additionally, the irritant elevates the heart rate, blood pressure, and brain activity by activating the sympathetic nervous system. Many athletes use these including powerlifters.*
    **Another strong stimulant is adrenaline/epinephrine. Adrenaline is naturally produced by the adrenal glands , small glands that sit on top of the kidneys. We all know the effects of adrenaline: Great increases in energy production, power, pain tolerance and focus. Adrenaline is what fuels the body in a Fight of Flight situation. Click the link to see how to increase adrenaline: http://www.wikihow.com/Get-an-Adrenaline-Rush
    One other way is to inject Epinephrine. "Epi Pens" are used in response to anaphylaxis (allergic reaction to a food allergy, venomous stings and bites or medication reactions). You can use epi pens in a powerlifting competition but i would only recommend it if you can perform the task long enough for the body to naturally work off the effects of the injection. Otherwise, you'll be uncomfortable, sweating, breathing heavy and have a high Blood Pressure.**
    Last edited by tank2003; 01-13-2017 at 11:36 AM.
    11A/11X ; VO2 Max=65 mL/(kg�min); Max Power Output=2250 watts; Max BP=465 lbs; B.S. Applied Clinical Exercise Physiology; Ask me your training questions here: http://forum.bodybuilding.com/showthread.php?t=173292071

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    Bad Back Brah tank2003's Avatar
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    7) The Rotator Cup/Cuff - 4 muscles that make up the RC muscle: "SITS" Muscle
    Supraspinatus
    Infraspinatus
    Teres Minor
    Subscapularis
    Muscle used when creating internal/external rotation of the humerus (or more commonly known); I.e. Arm Wrestling. The shoulder (glenohumeral joint) is the most unstable joint in the human body and the RC Muscles are the only factors in combatting a dislocated shoulder (which is why you are supposed to keep your elbows tucked when performing exercises that cause flexion/extension at the elbow ESPECIALLY when Bench Pressing, or anything that puts the weight above your head. SO MANY OF YOU JACK ASSES DON'T KNOW THIS. But the RC muscles are small, weak and fatigue easily. You train these muscles by recreating the arm wrestling motion. Most of the time when you have shoulder pain, its probablybecause you have terrible form on BP, OHP or any chest/shoulder exercise that works primarily through concentric loading and eccentric recoil. Since the RC muscles are small and weak, its very easy to separate your shoulder while exercising. You should always keep your elbows tucked at your side ANYTIME your exercise has resisted flexion/extension at the elbow

    8) Calories and Metabolism in relation to your diet
    A calorie, or KiloCalorie (kcal), is the amount of energy required to heat one kilogram of water, by one degree Celsius. Everything we do generates heat. The body must stay within an optimal temperature range to keep functioning properly, which conveys the importance of a proper fluid intake. Calories are needed to fuel the body without the body having to feed off various energy storages. By using more calories than you take in, you will reduce the amount of adipose tissue (fat cells). Logically, consuming more calories than you burn in a day will result in weight gain. Simply put right? Thought so. Fad diets are any dietary guidelines that call for you to drastically reduce or eliminate a macronutrient source (Proteins, fats, Carbohyrdates), which will work, but may force the body to alter its energy processes and metabolism, which tend to not be the optimal way to attain essential nutrients. The best dietary lifestyle one can have, is a balanced plan of proper caloric intake, sufficient exercise programming and adequate rest. Don't waste your money on excessive supplements, ridiculous dietary guidelines and stupid regiments. Check your will power at the door however
    The only way to lose weight is to burn more calories than you take in.
    *Calories in < Calories burned = Weight loss (Cutting)
    *Calories In > Calories burned = Weight Gain (Bulking. You can't put on mass without going over your caloric equilibrium without the help of Androgenic and Anabolic Steroids or other drugs) To keep from putting on too much non-Lean Body Mass, only take in around 300-500 kcals above your threshold and make sure they are not Empty calories from alcohol or sugar flavored foods and drinks.)

    9) Hypertrophy vs Hyperplasia
    Hypertrophy - opposite of increase in size of the muscle fiber and its cellular components; achieved by performing weight bearing activities
    Hyperplasia - increase in the number of muscle fibers and its cellular components; only found in prenatal and first years of post natal developement.
    10) Atrophy
    Atrophy (in regards to muscles)(opposite concept of "hyperplasia and hypertrophy") is the reduction in the mass and in turn, size of the muscle. This can range from slight to the point of the muscle wasting away completely. This happens due to these factors:
    *1) Lack of physical activity. "If you don't use it, You lose it." Self explanatory.
    *2) Injury that effects the neuromuscular stimulation or keeps one from regularly using a specific muscle or muscle groups.
    *3) Calcium defficiency. Calcium is absolutel necessary for a muscular contraction. You can look up the "Sliding filament theory" to get more info.
    Time and time again, i see some stupid thread about how you gains will be effected by this or that. Just because you missed 2 days, or drank a beer doesn't mean your gains will be effected. From what i can tell, only the uneducated, FNGs and POGs ask this question. You would think this is a common knowledge concept but then again, i've never really given the MISC too much credit or benefit of the doubt when it comes to an overabundance of logic or intelligence.

    11) Testosterone vs Estrogen
    Both are hormones secreted by the endocrine system and are found naturally in both sexes. Obviously, one more than the other. Women who seek my counsel always say what most skinny fat non-lifting noobs do. We've all heard it: "I don't wanna get too big." My response is ALWAYS:
    Men: Don't worry about that. It is years down a very strict and dedicate road.
    Women: Don't worry about it. Testosterone is absolutely vital for hypertrophy and women have 25 times less T levels than men do.
    Ways to increase T levels naturally:
    *1) Healthy Diet and Regular Exercise
    *2) Lose fat and increase Lean Body Mass
    *3) HIIT when combined with Intermittent Fasting
    *4) Strength Training
    *5) Reduce Stress and Cortisol
    *6) Optimize Vitamin D and consume Plenty of Zinc
    *7) BCAAs (won't increase directly, but when paired with resistance training, it helps branch those amino acids which in turn make up the mitochondria and then cause the necessary effects to for T production to boost)
    *8) Eat Healthy Fats
    *9) Limit or Eliminate sugar from your diet

    12)Agonist, Antagonist, Synergist and Stabalizers
    Agonist - AKA the prime mover. The agonist is the muscle(s) used to perform a specific movement. In a bicep curl, the Biceps Brachii and the Brachialis are the prime Movers
    Antagonist - The muscle(s) that perform the Opposite movement of the Agonist. Bicep curl->antagonist is The Triceps and the Anconeus (VERY small muscle in the elbow)
    Synergist - muscle(s) that aid the Agonist. Ex: Bench Press. The synergist is the triceps and anconeus
    Stabilizer muscles - Muscles that stabalize the joint during movement EX: Bench Press ->Mainly the Deltoids

    13)Eccentric vs Concentric Movements & The squat vs Deadlift debate
    *These are the phases of movement you go throw when performing a "rep"*
    Eccentric motion occurs when you are stretching the muscle fascia. For reference, I'll use the Bench Press. Eccentric Contactions happen when you lowering the weight. This is where you do the muscle damage to which the body responds by repairing the damaged tissue by rebuilding the tissue bigger and thicker, which in turn, increases your strength. The muscle elongates while under tension due to an opposing force greater than the muscle generates. This is the EXACT reason why you should always perform CONTROLLED motions
    Concentric Contraction - occurs when you are SHORTENING the fascia. This occurs when the force generated by the muscle exceeds the load opposing its contraction. (Bench Press) Occurs when you are pushing the weight up. Contrary to popular belief, you do VERY little damage to the muscle tissue. You do much less damage to the tissue when you recklessly perform the motions in a speedy fashion.
    Squat vs Deadlift
    **The SOLEdifference between these two is this: There is NO Eccentric Phase in a dead lift. 9 times out of 10, we all just let gravity do the work when lowering the weight. The louder the "Clank" when the weight hits the floor, the less work you did in the whole rep. The squat is much better for building leg strength as well as hip stability, BUT the deadlift is still useful as a synergist exercise**

    14) Movement terminology (this describes all the motions you can do while exercising)
    1)Abduction - lateral movement AWAY from the body (this motion occurs on the Frontal Plane)
    2)Adduction - lateral movement towards to midline (this motion occurs on the Frontal Plane)
    3)Flexion - reducing the angle of a joint i.e. bicep curls, leg curls, abdominal work (this motion usually occurs on the Saggital Plane)
    4)Extension - increasing the angle of a joint i.e. tricep extensions, pressing movements (this motion occurs on the saggital Plane)
    5)Circumduction - circular movements or a "cone" shape (i.e. when you do shoulder circles to warm up)
    6) External Rotation - Rotation away from the midline/body i.e. The opposite motion you perform to work your Rotator cup (this motion occurs on the longitudinal axis)
    7) Internal rotation - rotation toward the midline/body (this motion occurs on the longitudinal axis)

    15) O2 (oxygen) deficit/EPOC
    O2 deficit: Strenuous exercise can cause a temporary shortage of oxygen in cells known as oxygen deficit. This is what causes you to increase your respiration rate. You quickly use the O2 and the body compensates by increases BP, heart rate and cellular synthesis (mitochondrial increase) in order to replace that O2 you just used up.

    Excessive Post Oxygen Consumption (EPOC) AKA, the AFTERBURN.
    You have stored O2 in your muscles. EPOC happens when you perform a movement, then stop suddenly, and then you have to take a few big breaths. Say you were to sprint a short distance like 10 yards. You may not breath hard while sprinting, but when you stop, you are winded. You used the O2 up and your body compensates by increasing heart rate in order to take big breathes to replenish O2 you used.


    16)All or nothing response
    All muscles in a motor Unit contract, or none at all contract. Because you have lifted weights before, your Central Nervous System has already adapted to your weight bearing activities and will make an assumption of how many Motor Units to recruit in order to perform the movement. There was a study done in the 1980's on a powerlifter performing the Bench Press. His first 1RM was done per usual. The second attempt, he was blind folded and put ear plugs in so he could not hear the sounds the plates made when loaded (we all know the sound of a 45 hitting a 45, and a 25 hitting a 45). he was not told the amount of weight they loaded. He attempted the lift until he was fatigued too much and eventually lifted almost 40 lbs over his 1RM. I tried this myself and i was able to achieve a higher lift, but not by 40 lbs. Powerlifters are elite athletes and therefore, are capable of greater feats of strengt
    Last edited by tank2003; 01-13-2017 at 07:30 AM.
    11A/11X ; VO2 Max=65 mL/(kg�min); Max Power Output=2250 watts; Max BP=465 lbs; B.S. Applied Clinical Exercise Physiology; Ask me your training questions here: http://forum.bodybuilding.com/showthread.php?t=173292071

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    Bad Back Brah tank2003's Avatar
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    17) Neuromuscular adaptationl The Noob Gains
    Primary Neuromuscular Adaptation occurs in the first 6 months of someone who starts a lifting regiment. This is why you make "Beginner Gains." Your CNS is, in essence, takes on a fight or flight reaction and recruits a lot of motor units as well as repairing the damaged muscle tissue.

    18) Ground Reaction force
    Q: Why is it easier to run on a treadmill than pavement? A: Newtons Third Law of Motion. It essentially states that if a force, called action, acts upon a body, then an equal and opposite force, called reaction, must act upon another body. Ex: If a person is standing still, the force exerted on the ground (i.e. the persons weight in accordance to the earth's gravity (-9.8 m/s^2)) is equal to the force the earth is applying to the individual. In order to walk, jog, or run, the ground MUST apply the equal amount of force upwards to the individuals feet. Friction is a parallel force. When running on pavement, there is more friction, which is much harder on the feet, legs and hips. When you run on grass or a treadmill, there is less friction and less GFR exerted. If you were to run in sand, the is much less friction than pavement, and also MUCH less GFR applied upwards, so you have to work harder to maintain your speed.

    19) Jogging vs Running (or sprinting)
    When we walk, jog or run, our feet go through the same three phases: 1)Heel Strike 2)Mid-stance 3)Toe off and then it repeats. The only difference, biochemically speaking, is there is a flight phase between the repetition between the Toe off and Heel strike. If we are talking speed, the difference is as follows: 1)Walking->0.1mph-4.0mph 2) Jog->4.1mph-5.9mph 3)Run->6.0mph and up

    20) Power vs force
    A lot of people use Power and Force interchangeably which is a misnomenclature.
    Force = Mass times acceleration (F=MxA) Force is normally measured in the SI unit of newtons which is equal to 1kg accelerating at 1m/s^2.
    Power = Work divided by time (P=w/T) Work is Force times Distance (w=ma x d)and is measured in Joules per second squared (J/s^2(ma is Mass x Acceleration (listed above)). Power is measured in watts. The way to determind a persons Power is to have them perform an anaerobic stress test. The ACSM gold standard is the Windgate Bike Test. Trust me, this 30 sec test was invented by the devil. It is BROOOOOOTAL.

    **Not exactly sure why this guy came off his seat. The results are usually tossed if you leave your seat**
    The difference between Force and power is there is a Speed component expressed as Acceleration.

    21) Types of weight training (isotonic, isometric, Isokinetic, eccentric loading, plyo, Speed loading, super slows, electrical stim)
    *Isotonic - Concentric and Eccentric Contractions
    *Isometric - Static Contraction (no change in joint angles) Ex: Posing, Or pushing against a wall or object you cannot move
    *Isokinetic - allows individual to control the resistance. VERY uncommon. You would need a machine that moves at the same pace while maintaning the same amount of resistance.
    *Eccentric Loading - AKA Negatives. Ex: Bench Press-> When lifter lowers the weight to his chest only and spotters raise the weight for him. VERY VERY effective training exercise
    *Plyometrics - Negatives followed by a strong concentric action. Very dangerous because you raise your potential for tearing muscles. Ex: Box Jumps
    * Speed Loading - Lifting weights in a fast but controlled manner. Very dangerous and only useful for Power Lifters
    *Electrical Stimulation - Electrical Impulse causes stimulation. Some of you may have a TENS unit. Transcutaneus Electrical Nerve Stimulator. the Electrical impulse does the work for you. Usually used in rehab clinics, but can be used to help relieve nerve pain

    22) Energy Systems
    We all have the same energy processes and metabolic pathways to power our bodies. But your fitness level type of training dictates which processes are used the most. Every movement we make starts with the first step, and then proceeds forward. The length of whatever you are doing determines which energy system you halt at. (The terminology may differ from source to source)
    ***1)Stored ATP. Lasts for 2-3 seconds. Ex: A wind up Pitch in baseball.
    ***2)ATP-Pcr (Phospho-Creatine) Complex- Lasts 3-15 seconds; Happens when Creatine Kinase Splits the Phosphate from the Creatine. This does not require Oxygen. Ex: For someone who is not "in shape," an example would be lifting weights that the person can only perform for up to 15 seconds and no more.
    ***3)Anaerobic Glycolysis - Energy Comes from glucose/glycogen which provides fast energy; Lasts 15 seconds to 2 minutes. Ex: 6 inches (when you lay down and lift you straightened legs up 6" in the air and hold them static)
    ***4)Oxidative Phosporylation - Requires Oxygen and lasts from 2-15 min. This is where the Electron Transport Chain, Krebbs cycle occur. Ex: Jogging/Running that you can ONLY perform for 2-15 min and no longer.
    ***5) Lipolysis - The breakdown of lipids in order to fuel the body. Lasts from 30 minutes and up. Ex: Long Distance jogging. This is why marathon runners look like emaciated africans
    Last edited by tank2003; 01-11-2017 at 05:34 PM.
    11A/11X ; VO2 Max=65 mL/(kg�min); Max Power Output=2250 watts; Max BP=465 lbs; B.S. Applied Clinical Exercise Physiology; Ask me your training questions here: http://forum.bodybuilding.com/showthread.php?t=173292071

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    23) Unnecessary Sports drink
    We all know that when we exercise, we create create our own energy, which propels us forward in exercise, is eventually lost as heat (Netwons law of Thermodynamics). To keep our vital organ systems within their optimal range the body produces sweat to faciliate the cooling process. Sweat is salt water + nitrogenous wastes (amonia, urea, creatinine, uric acid) + Electrlytes (Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium). Most people liken a muscle cramp to being dehydrated. A lot of the time, this is true, but most likely, the answer is because we may not be in shape.You see ads for sports drinks all the time, telling you about how you must rehydrate, which is true. HOWEVER, sports drinks are not a necessity. While they do contain electrolytes and sugars, your body knows how to adjust itself in order to keep itself running. IMO, sports drinks are best when used after exercising.

    24) Lactic Acid Build-Up/Buffering vs Neuromuscular Tearing → DOMS
    When we perform high intensity exercises, we all know that burning feeling deep in the muscle fascia. This is the build up of lactic acid, which is produced when the demand for energy is high and glucose is produced and then broken down into pyruvate and lactate. More lactate is produced than the tissue can remove it, resulting in that burn. A high lactate threshold is an excellent indication of ones CV endurance. Theoretically, as long as you can take the pain, you can continue on, but pain is one of the limiting factors. For many years, it was thought that lactic acid build up was responsible for muscle soreness, which we know now it has very little to do with it. In fact, if you reduce your work load, Your body will buffer the lactic acid, reuse it or convert it to energy. So if lactate isnt responsible for muscle soreness, what is? The answer is Neruromuscular damage. On the micro-level in the fascia, your fray and tear muscle fibers and the body responds my flooding the area with blood in order to deliver nutrients, O2 as well as remove nitrogenous wastes and damaged tissue. Over the course of a few days, the DOMS builds up as a result of the repairing of the neuromuscular damage, the pump and now you are paying to rebuild.

    25) Why your shoulders hurt...Most likely
    So every other hour or so, I see a thread asking why my shoulders hurt, and it pretty much always has to do with their BP. 90% of us strive for that big bench, and sacrifice form to do so. ANYTIME your exercise requires you to bend the elbow (under resistance), your elbows should always be tucked into your lats. To have your elbows pointing out at a 90 degree angle is completely wrong. You may be able to push more weight that way, but you are causing tons of damage to your rotator cup muscles and the glenoid labrum. When it comes down to it, BP isn't really a stellar chest exercise because it doesnt even replicate the primary action of the Pectorals muscles. The action of the Pectorals is adduction of the humerus (recreating the chest fly motion).
    11A/11X ; VO2 Max=65 mL/(kg�min); Max Power Output=2250 watts; Max BP=465 lbs; B.S. Applied Clinical Exercise Physiology; Ask me your training questions here: http://forum.bodybuilding.com/showthread.php?t=173292071

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    How to stop pooping when squatting? sometimes ill go down and make a poopoo and have to go to bathroom and fix the problem and go back to the set after a 20 min underwear change and ass wiping in between sets, its ****ing up my leg workouts.
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    Originally Posted by paradigmshift5 View Post
    How to stop pooping when squatting? sometimes ill go down and make a poopoo and have to go to bathroom and fix the problem and go back to the set after a 20 min underwear change and ass wiping in between sets, its ****ing up my leg workouts.

    Stop being the power bottom. It can weaken the external anal sphincter
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    Am I wasting my time working back for 90 minutes?
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    Originally Posted by PeteJonesHTX View Post
    Am I wasting my time working back for 90 minutes?
    Not at all assuming you are doing exercises ergonomically and correctly. What are the exercises youa re doing?
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    is curling in the squat rack bad for my knees?
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    Originally Posted by tank2003 View Post
    Not at all assuming you are doing exercises ergonomically and correctly. What are the exercises youa re doing?
    This was my routine today (different order tho):

    Bent over barbell row
    Bent over dumbbell row
    Seated row (hammer strength)
    Lat pulldown (cable)
    Lat pulldown (machine)
    Cable row
    T bar row
    Machine high row

    decline situps
    leg raises

    LISS cardio - 15 min moderate intensity
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    how do I prevent pooping while squatting? even tho i pooped beforehand
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    Originally Posted by XOneAndOnlyX View Post
    is curling in the squat rack bad for my knees?
    No. It is just bad for your masculinity

    Originally Posted by PeteJonesHTX View Post
    This was my routine today (different order tho):

    Bent over barbell row
    Bent over dumbbell row
    Seated row (hammer strength)
    Lat pulldown (cable)
    Lat pulldown (machine)
    Cable row
    T bar row
    Machine high row

    decline situps
    leg raises

    LISS cardio - 15 min moderate intensity
    Looks OK to me. Although, i would change your cardio to something similar to HIIT and on its own day or a day that is relatively light. HIIT type cardio triggers "Forced Breathing." This is when your diaphragm and Pectoralis Minor REALLY activate. Your diaphragm of course, contracts down to open your lungs and pulls air in to equal out the pressure in your lungs to the atmospheric pressure. When you fore creth, your pect minor contracts to pull the scapula UP and the ribs OUT to allow you to take in more air since the demand on your muslces is RIDICULOUSLY high. IMO, combining Back workouts and cardio is kind of shooting yourself int he foot since you fatigue your back (back workouts SHOULD include upper AND lower back. Lower back is a part of your core, but all of your upper body muscles are contingent upon the strength of your low back muscles (erector spinae). Weal low back = weak core = more potential for injury like a disc herniation or hernia = the upper limit for developement for upper back/chest muscles). Low back is the Bottom of the pyramid. The stronger your low back, the stronger everythign else will be. P
    PLUS...HIIT cardio burns almost 3 times as much cardio. Also, look at the developement of a sprinter (HIIT workouts) vs a marathon runner (steady state/LISS)


    I would also suggest tapering a 90 ISO workout like that to no more than 45 min.
    Originally Posted by Maxlol200 View Post
    how do I prevent pooping while squatting? even tho i pooped beforehand
    use a 13" long, 8" girth cylinder sponge. it will expand and stop anythign from coming out.
    Last edited by tank2003; 01-11-2017 at 06:01 PM.
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    Squats- doing more than 90 degrees risks potential knee injury yes or no?
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    Originally Posted by tank2003 View Post
    No. It is just bad for your masculinity


    Looks OK to me. Although, i would change your cardio to something similar to HIIT and on its own day or a day that is relatively light. HIIT type cardio triggers "Forced Breathing." This is when your diaphragm and Pectoralis Minor REALLY activate. Your diaphragm of course, contracts down to open your lungs and pulls air in to equal out the pressure in your lungs to the atmospheric pressure. When you fore creth, your pect minor contracts to pull the scapula UP and the ribs OUT to allow you to take in more air since the demand on your muslces is RIDICULOUSLY high. IMO, combining Back workouts and cardio is kind of shooting yourself int he foot since you fatigue your back (back workouts SHOULD include upper AND lower back. Lower back is a part of your core, but all of your upper body muscles are contingent upon the strength of your low back muscles (erector spinae). Weal low back = weak core = more potential for injury like a disc herniation or hernia = the upper limit for developement for upper back/chest muscles). Low back is the Bottom of the pyramid. The stronger your low back, the stronger everythign else will be. P
    PLUS...HIIT cardio burns almost 3 times as much cardio. Also, look at the developement of a sprinter (HIIT workouts) vs a marathon runner (steady state/LISS)


    I would also suggest tapering a 90 ISO workout like that to no more than 45 min.
    Thanks for the advices. I did a lot of HIIT cardio during my cut (I always do), but lately I've just been doing LISS. I'll make sure to add in at least 2 HIIT sessions a week.
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    Originally Posted by GrimGram View Post
    Squats- doing more than 90 degrees risks potential knee injury yes or no?
    All depends on form. If you are doing this slow and controlled and NOT letting gravity handle the eccentric phase then any potential threat is minimized. ALWAYS ALWAYS make sure you poke your chest out (which adducts or brings the scapulas together int he back) and plant your eyes UP half way between the ceiling and your height.
    Jeff Cavalier REALLy excplains the proper way here:
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    What would be the best weight training regiment for a high jumper? Should I do P/P/L or no upper body or lots of core? I just dunno how to structure the program. I'm already fine with the stretching and getting to the track and actually practicing, it's just what to focus on in the weight room
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    Okay serious question op

    My shoulders are very sore the day after my chest day. I do incline bench, flat bench, and chest dips.

    Is that a bad sign? I don't want something bad to happen to my shoulders if they were being overworked.
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    Originally Posted by PeteJonesHTX View Post
    Thanks for the advices. I did a lot of HIIT cardio during my cut (I always do), but lately I've just been doing LISS. I'll make sure to add in at least 2 HIIT sessions a week.
    Not a problem brother. I absolutely LOVE spreading my knowledge. Low intensity cardio is almost useless, unless you are geriatric, a beginner, recovering from and injury or have a biomechanical limitation. A lot of guys dont focus that much on cardio because its just not the same as pushing weight. I'm guilty of it myself. However, when you train with weights, you will get a bump in cardio vascular activity. its not a whole lot, but its a little bit. Now flip that, if you mainly do cardio, then your muscular endurance will be muuuuuch greater since you are use to steady state activity and use to having your heart beating at a certain intensity and delivering blood and nutrients as well as buffering lactic acid and removing the Carbon dioxide and nitrogenous waste fromt eh muscle fascia which limitates potential. I will say though, as a guy that pretty much ONLY hit the weights, and then switched to almost JUSt cardio, the second wind in running is like fukking crack. To me, its way more powerful than the pump. The pump is AWESOME for lifting but you burn through SO MUCH energy with that. The second wind lasts MUCH longer.

    A really good HIIT exercise is the 60-120. You walk for 60 seconds, then sprint for 120 sec for 6 sets. Now, the first time you do this, you'll just want to kill yourself because this is a BRUTAL exercise. I would start with 30-60s or even 15-30s. As you do this more and more, you can just jog rather than walk. We did this in the army and it cut my 2 mile time from 14 min down to 12:30. but they key is giving it your all. Its so fukking hard to sprint for 2 minutes and there is no pump or second wind, but after a few weeks, those quads will start to get that fat tear drop shape. Plus, your survivability int he zombie apocalypse just skyrocketed
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    Will vertical suffer from gaining weight?
    Best way to improve jumping?

    Asking for my brother

    He wants to stop being a twink (6'2 180lbs) but is afraid of hurting his verticle. For basketball/volleyball

    I thought about making a thread but I'm just looking for some advice.
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    OP just convinced me to add HIIT to my routine. Will rep once I get that fat tear drop shape lol
    What's your opinion on body tempering? I just want to make sure I'm not wasting my time rolling out and flossing.
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    Every time I squat or jump the sides of my left knee hurts. It also pops when I twist it. This does not happen at all with my other knee. Wut do?
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    I never really trained abs directly but 2 months ago I began doing "roll outs" where u take the little wheel thing, get on your knees, and roll it out the come back. Fairly common in most gyms. I get a great burn and it feels like its doing a lot to strengthen my core.

    My question is, am I just making this up in my head? What's the actual effectiveness of this motion. Would you advise another ab/core movement over this if you had to choose only one?
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    Originally Posted by Moose334 View Post
    What would be the best weight training regiment for a high jumper? Should I do P/P/L or no upper body or lots of core? I just dunno how to structure the program. I'm already fine with the stretching and getting to the track and actually practicing, it's just what to focus on in the weight room
    This i s a good and rarely asked question.
    1. Do not skirt on the rest of your body. Of course, you will need to place emphasis on the lower kinetic chain, but one thing to remember is this: all energy stems from the ground via the ground force reaction concept. Newton's Third Law of motion; every action has an equal and opposite reaction. When it comes to high jumping, the force you use and measure is in joules or newtons (maybe. i'm terrible at physics). Anyway, you can best equate high jumping with a squat. we are going to start from the bottom of the exercise though (between the eccentric and concentric phase). Newton's third law states that if you exert (and this is just in layman's terms) say...300 lbs on the ground, then the ground will respond with 300 lbs in return. Your goal, obviously, is to maximize that ground reaction force. I'm not very familiar with track and field stuff, but it can easily be equated, which is what i did with the squat.
    *Plyometrics - Negatives followed by a strong concentric action. Very dangerous because you raise your potential for tearing muscles. Ex: Box Jumps
    the exercises you want to do are squats, dead lifts, lunges, leg extensions (leg extensions can make your knees sore sometimes, especially if the resting point pulls your feet under your butt while sitting on the machine) and leg curls. When you perform a jump, you activate a very long kinetic chain (which is a chain of innervation signals from the central nervous system, to the muscles, in a specific order to achieve a motion) that basically starts from your core. You start the action with your arms, which is a natural response from the body to initiate momentum that goes from the abs, to your feet. Which is why it is IMPERATIVE to not neglect muscle groups. The stronger your muscle is, the more momentum they can help generate. So logically speaking, when you have STRONG core muscles, that amplifies the momentum from the core, to the glutes (which extend your trunk; takes you from a folded up position to straight), then to the quads AND ham strings then to the calves. The key here, is to teach yourself how to perfect the innervation and motions. You mess up one, and the others have to take up the slack and can result in injury or a botched form. Also, since i dont know much about this in a practical sense, i'll refer you to this video:



    Originally Posted by Tomi_Li View Post
    Okay serious question op

    My shoulders are very sore the day after my chest day. I do incline bench, flat bench, and chest dips.

    Is that a bad sign? I don't want something bad to happen to my shoulders if they were being overworked.
    Long story short, yes. Your anterior delts should be sore, not your actual shoulder joint (where the humerus meets the scapulas; technically speaking, the should is called the glenohumeral joint; the glenoid fossa is the articulation surface on the scapula where the humerus meets it. In between the two bones is a thin stretch of cartilage called the glenoid labrum. When you tear cartilage in your shoulder, thats what you tear.). I covered this up in the shoulder pain section, but i'll just touch on it again.

    I'm willing to bt that when you bench, you are committing some biomechanical principles that contribute to injury which is one of the following:
    1. You are letting gravity bring the weight to your chest and/or letting it bounce. This results in a very HIGH torque output on the shoulder.
    2. Your elbows are too far out. They should be nor farther than 45 degrees. i prefer to tuck my arms into my lats because this reduces the engagement of the Rotator cup muscles which are small, weak and easily fatigued. The farther you flare your elbows, the more the RC is engaged (and RC engagement is dangerous on BP type exercises)
    3. Not pausing at the bottom. Its not IMPERATIVE that you touch your chest because the longer your arms are, the more torque is exerted on the should. Keep in mind that Torque is a rotational force and the RC muscles are the ONLy muscles that rotate the humerus. Now take a step back and look at the BP. When you does this exercise slow and controlled, does your upper arm rotate? The answer should be no. Here is what i talked about above:
    25) Why your shoulders hurt...Most likely
    So every other hour or so, I see a thread asking why my shoulders hurt, and it pretty much always has to do with their BP. 90% of us strive for that big bench, and sacrifice form to do so. ANYTIME your exercise requires you to bend the elbow (under resistance), your elbows should always be tucked into your lats. To have your elbows pointing out at a 90 degree angle is completely wrong. You may be able to push more weight that way, but you are causing tons of damage to your rotator cup muscles and the glenoid labrum. When it comes down to it, BP isn't really a stellar chest exercise because it doesnt even replicate the primary action of the Pectorals muscles. The action of the Pectorals is adduction of the humerus (recreating the chest fly motion).
    This biggest take away from this is any exercise that results in extension and/or flexion at the elbows, then you NEED to tuck your elbows: EX: Bench press, Curls, Tricep Extensions, Overhead Press, Tricep dips etc
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    ^ Pretty much my question from the wizard above.

    Thanks Tankbrah on spread
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    Originally Posted by Pterodactyl314 View Post
    Will vertical suffer from gaining weight?
    Best way to improve jumping?

    Asking for my brother

    He wants to stop being a twink (6'2 180lbs) but is afraid of hurting his verticle. For basketball/volleyball

    I thought about making a thread but I'm just looking for some advice.
    Yes and No. As you increase the weight (which is the resistant force in a jump), if you put on weight rather than Lean body mass, then you are hindering your potential. With your bro being so tall, i dont think he has to worry about weight increase because its much harder for us tall guys to add on LBM. I can guarantee you though, that if he REALLy hammers those quads, then he will be able to generate SO MUCH MORE POWER. When it comes to jumping, there is also whats called muscle elasticity included. think of it like one of those SUPER bouncy balls. The material that it is made of is EXTREMELY elastic which means, you can drop it from 3 feet, and it will bounce back up to just under that height, which means it is a VERY efficient force translator. Now think of your legs. you CAN increase muscle elasticity, but it its hard to tell if you have just increase muscle force generation or elasticity.
    Olympic power lifters are EXCELLENT figures to adopt a jumping regiment from. Those bastard squat so much that when they jump AND pull their legs UP ito their body just after take off, the distance between their feet and the ground is doubled usually. They can do this because of their leg training. They can squat a fukking chit ton, but the best weapon they use in training, is pausing at the bottom (between eccentric and concentric phase) and then EXPLODING up. Some powerlifters can generate so much power that if it could be harnessed, then it could charge your phone for 5 minutes. Here is a good videos i found.
    This is Jeff Cavalier. he is a physical thereapist and an athletic trainer for the Yankees. He is probably the best source for online reference. BUFF guys are really solid sources as well
    [youtubwe]PtbAFo2ukZE[/youtube]



    Originally Posted by SxeSam View Post
    OP just convinced me to add HIIT to my routine. Will rep once I get that fat tear drop shape lol
    What's your opinion on body tempering? I just want to make sure I'm not wasting my time rolling out and flossing.
    Excellent choice my man. Just remember that the ends justify the means when you do HIIT cardio. Its BRUTAL when you do it properly.

    What do you mean by body tempering? I'm not familiar with that terminology

    Originally Posted by iloveus View Post
    Every time I squat or jump the sides of my left knee hurts. It also pops when I twist it. This does not happen at all with my other knee. Wut do?
    Popping CAN be a warning sign. its usually when the muscle moves when it contracts. Popping in the knee is somewhat common and it can be as simple as your vastaus lateralus oblique or the vastus medius oblique contracting and snapping against your patella. Do the popping hurt? If so, then you need to take a step back, figure out exactly what aggravates it, and what "helps" it. You can record your exercises or get a friend to watch you looking for biomechanical issues. The knee is the 2nd most unstable joint in the body next to the shoulder, so pain in these is common and can be a number of different things:
    1. Knee tracking - You may have a knee tracking issue, meaning that your femur, tibia and patella do not translate in the appropriate fashion and this can be cause by several different issues which makes it hard to pinpoint without the advice of a professional
    2. This is common most days in people because the average person has a HUGE muscle disproportion between the upper and lower body meaning most people's upper bodies are protportionaltely stronger than their lower. Ex: BP max is around 100lbs lower than squat max. This is no bueno and needs to be corrected.
    To elaborate, there is almost always another in proportionate between the strength of the hamstrings and the quads. most people ham weak hams and strong quads. this is a GREAT way to injur your knee. Try this and see what it does:

    Originally Posted by tim5p View Post
    I never really trained abs directly but 2 months ago I began doing "roll outs" where u take the little wheel thing, get on your knees, and roll it out the come back. Fairly common in most gyms. I get a great burn and it feels like its doing a lot to strengthen my core.

    My question is, am I just making this up in my head? What's the actual effectiveness of this motion. Would you advise another ab/core movement over this if you had to choose only one?
    I would rank this as a Moderately effective exercise. The motion that the abs do is to flex at the hip (bringing your knees to your face). When you do the roll out, it does flex a bit at the hip, but not enough to REALLY help with the toning of the abs. And not to mention that if you dont have strong arms, then you probably cant do it. when you step back and look at this exercise, there isnt a lot of flexion at the hip . EX:

    You WANT to flex at the hip, so this is a more effective set up:

    Here is another variation:

    I will say though, that if you can do the roll out from a standing position, then you are doing well
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    Good stuff Tank. Glad to see you sharing your knowledge.
    Jesus is my lifting partner.
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    Originally Posted by GreenWave1 View Post
    Good stuff Tank. Glad to see you sharing your knowledge.
    I'm just glad some one wants to learn. Glad to see you brother!
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    On this they talk about positioning with 'tailbone down' position for deadlifts if you have APT. When I do this I feel it far more in the abs, is anything dangerous about this position?
    https://www.t-nation.com/training/7-...or-pelvic-tilt

    I have bad APT (yes read the brobrah guide) and wondering if I need to do this 'rib down' thing more.
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