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BigNorwegian
10-16-2006, 08:05 AM
Carbohydrates:

Basics:

- Molecules digested into ATP (http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9356087) for cellular energy.
- Primary source of energy to fuel the body.
- Contains 4kcal/gram.
- 45% - 65% of kcal consumed per day (RDA).
- Includes sugar, starches & fibers.
- Healty carbohydrates include whole grains, fruits & vegetables.

Whole Grains(attached picture: Whole Grain)

Bran:

- Fiber
- B Vitamins

Endosperm:

- Starch
- Protein
- Some vitamins & minerals

Germ:

- Vitamin E (and other fat soluable vitamins)
- Oil
- Protein


Simple Sugars

Monosaccharides:

- Glucose: Prefered energy source in cells.
- Fructose: Fruit sugar.
- Galactose: Milke sugar.

Disaccharides:

- Sucrose: Table sugar. Fructose + Glucose = Sucrose.
- Lactose: Sugar in milk. Galactose + Glucose = Lactose.
- Maltose: Malt sugar. Glucose + Glucose = Maltose.


Complex Carbs

Oligosaccharides:

- Raffinose: Chain of 5 glucoses.
- Stachyose: Chain of 4 glucoses.

Polysaccharides:

- Glycogen: Stored in the liver and muscles. 300 - 600g depending upon genetics. Once storage becomes full it then turns into fat.
- Starch: Produced by plants.
- Chitin
- Fiber

BigNorwegian
10-16-2006, 08:06 AM
Whole Grain Diagram

BigNorwegian
10-16-2006, 08:15 AM
Carb Digestion & Absorbtion
- Begins in the mouth with the action of amylase (http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9007297/amylase).
- Continues to the small intestine with the action of pancreatic amylase, lactase (http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9046768/lactase), maltase (http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9050375/maltase).

Glucose Delivery to Cells:
- Glucose enters cells through a transport protein by faciliated diffusion.
- Insulin regulates the amount of glucose to be absorbed.

Glycemic Index:
- A measure of how quickly glucose enters the bloodstream.
- Low glycemic index foods enter slowly.
- High glycemic index foods enter quickly.
- There is NO UNIFIED SYSTEM.

Glucose Metabolism Inside Cells:
- Glucose is the fuel used to produce cellular energy(ATP).
- The bonds in the glucose molecule are broken, the energy in the molecule is released and this energy is captured as ATP.

BigNorwegian
10-16-2006, 08:16 AM
I'll leave carbs off here and write up protein, fats and lipids later on.

Enjoy,
BigNorg

PureMotivation
10-16-2006, 12:54 PM
haha this is like from a book.

But you messed up a little, Glucose and Galactose traverse the cell lining of the intesting through active transport.

Fructose is absorbed through facilitated diffusion slowing it's entry.

All three are carried to the liver by the portal vein.

Nice post though.

RB12
10-16-2006, 01:09 PM
good start BN, you might want to consider throwing some info up on glycimic load too, to compliment the GI info

BigNorwegian
10-16-2006, 01:09 PM
Ha, I wish I owned a book with this stuff. Unfortunately I don't, all from the top of my head.

BigNorwegian
10-16-2006, 01:10 PM
good start BN, you might want to consider throwing some info up on glycimic load too, to compliment the GI info

Yea, its just so much info that its difficult to organize. I might add some more carb info later tonight.