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View Full Version : Question about Starvation Response & Adaptive Thermogenesis [4000+ reps]



Robby Coker
11-01-2008, 05:45 PM
By what % or %-range does your metabolism drop if the Starvation Response is provoked by very low Calorie dieting?

And also, by what % or %-range does your metabolism increase (via Adaptive Thermogenesis) whenever you overfeed & eat over your TDEE [Total Daily Energy Expenditure]?
Based on a study I read, the range is from 1-18%, but I'm not exactly sure of that.

I'm trying to find these figures out because I'm creating a total metabolism calculator on Microsoft Excel 2003.


reps for good answers

Dr. Horse
11-01-2008, 06:58 PM
You may find this interesting:

http://www.unu.edu/unupress/food2/UID07E/uid07e11.htm

http://fulltext.ausport.gov.au/fulltext/2002/acsms/Papers/Chapman2.asp

Hotmoltenlava
11-01-2008, 07:32 PM
These are interesting......

http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/82/3/739

http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/86/2/276?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&author1=Wortman&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&resourcetype=HWCIT

Robby Coker
11-01-2008, 07:58 PM
The following is my best conclusion so far on the Starvation Response in cutting:

There are people who have reported substantial drops in core body temperature while cutting, especially if the program is extreme. Some report core body temperatures of around 96 degrees.

According to Lyle McDonald, a core/morning body temperature at 97.8-98.2 degrees indicates that your metabolism is running at around 100% of its normal rate.

Your metabolism slows down by 7% for each degree that your body temperature drops by.

So, from this, it could be speculated that metabolism can slow by up to 14% based on the drop in core body temperature alone. So, this factor alone can cause metabolism to drop by 1-14% in response to Calorie deficits. This would be referred to as the Starvation Response.

Your core body temperature is a major indication of Thyroid function, and Thyroid function is one the things that drops in a diet that is too low in Calories. Your Thyroid Gland is the Master Controller of your metabolism. Levels of Leptin, a hormone which plays a role in weight regulation, tends to drastically drop in response to too little Calories. One effect of this is reduced Thyroid function showing up as a decrease in core body temperature.

Another thing that seems to also be responsible for drop in maintenance Calorie level during cutting is that you're simply eating less food. The typical American diet has a thermogenic rating of 11% at maintenance Calories. So, if you create a huge Calorie deficit, without changing your macronutrient ratios, then this figure can drop by 5-6%.

Add this to the possible drop in Thyroid function through decreased Leptin, and your maintenance Calorie level may drop by 6-20% (from what it normally is).

However, as the study in the first link posted suggests, the decrease occurs gradually the longer you eat at a large Calorie deficit.

Sleepstream
11-01-2008, 08:01 PM
Is this total metabolism calculator only going to be used by you?

Robby Coker
11-01-2008, 08:03 PM
Is this total metabolism calculator only going to be used by you?
Anyone can use it. If you want, after I'm done, I could send you a copy of it.

lorinelise
11-01-2008, 08:06 PM
Interesting project.

Sleepstream
11-01-2008, 08:10 PM
Anyone can use it. If you want, after I'm done, I could send you a copy of it.

Well, the problem to me is how well it would generalize to others.

I would like to see what all factors into the final number. Different macronutrient ratios, micronutrient ratios, etc. may all play differences. I'm sure you've seen the dairy studies using calcium supplements and actual dairy foods, and how calorie expenditure varied just between those.

Are you doing this as a project for college?

Robby Coker
11-01-2008, 11:43 PM
Well, the problem to me is how well it would generalize to others.

I would like to see what all factors into the final number. Different macronutrient ratios, micronutrient ratios, etc. may all play differences. I'm sure you've seen the dairy studies using calcium supplements and actual dairy foods, and how calorie expenditure varied just between those.

Are you doing this as a project for college?

No.

I'm doing it mainly because there are people on here, especially in the teen section, who post about how they have trouble gaining weight and other stuff.

So, I figured this would be useful so they can find their total metabolism based on various factors. Some of the factors are inputs that you enter in (e.g. activity factor, morning body temp, macronutrient ratios, etc.). A good bit of them on there ask for a "YES" or "NO" response.

Robby Coker
11-01-2008, 11:47 PM
I just finished the total metabolism calculator.

Here's the file.

PushUp08
11-02-2008, 12:02 AM
Nice tool, easy to use.

Robby Coker
11-02-2008, 02:56 PM
I did some revisions on the Total Metabolism Calculator.

The following changes were made:

1) Two pop-up text boxes (ones that pop up when you go over the red tab) weren't big enough and was hiding some of the text. So, I increased the size of those two boxes, and all of the text now displays properly.

2) Zoomed in the chart by one level. This makes it easier to read.

3) Fixed some problems where:
-#VALUE! error was appearing in various fields whenever you enter your Energy Balance but have the Resting Metabolism Rate (RMR) or Activity Factor left blank or with text instead of a numerical value.
-#VALUE! error was appearing in some Total Calorie Expenditure fields if you enter text into any box that requires a numerical value.
-#VALUE! error was appearing in the Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) field & BMI Calculator fields if you entered a numerical value instead of text in the Gender field or entered text instead of a numerical value in the Age, Height, or Weight field.

4) Edited the pop-up text boxes.

5) In the % Starvation Response and % Adaptive Thermogenesis fields in the Total Calorie Expenditure section, I used a function similar to CONCATENATE instead of entering "% Starvation Response" and "% Adaptive Thermogenesis" directly into the field. This function uses the "&" symbol to put multiple values together. So, these fields now retrieve values from the cells which contain the numbers and text.

6) In the Activity Factor field, I made it where the Activity Factor defaults to 1.0 (bed-bound) if you leave the field blank or enter text instead of a numerical value into it. The Metabolic Ratings now do not appear if the Activity Factor field is left blank or contains text.

7) In the Macronutrient Ratios fields, entering text into one or more of them instead of a numerical value was causing the #VALUE! error to appear in certain fields. The Base Thermogenic Effect of Food now defaults to the typical American Diet value if you enter text into one or more of them instead of a numerical value.

8) If the sum of the Macronutrient Ratios percentage in all three fields add up to less than 100%, the Base Thermogenic Effect of Food now defaults to the typical American Diet value.

9) On the Metabolism Speed Variation field, I made it where you no longer have to enter your response in all caps.

10) On the other fields which require a yes/no response, you no longer have to enter your response in all caps.

11) On the Gender field, you no longer have to enter your gender with a capital letter.

12) The value "0" no longer appears, by default, in:
-the Calorie Surplus fields in the Total Calorie Expenditure if the value you enter into the Energy Balance field is less than or equal to 0, is blank, or contains text instead of a numerical value.
-the Calorie Deficit fields in the Total Calorie Expenditure section if the value you enter into the Energy Balance field is greater than or equal to 0, is blank, or contains text instead of a numerical value.


Anyway, here's the new version of it.

Robby Coker
11-02-2008, 05:58 PM
I found some things on Adaptive Thermogenesis, also called NEAT (Non-Exercise Adaptive Thermogenesis).

One study shows that metabolism increases by 6% (probably long-term) for every 1000 Calories that you eat over maintenance.
Weekly Changes in Basal Metabolic Rate with Eight Weeks of Overfeeding
Ann M. Harris, Michael D. Jensen and James A. Levine
Endocrine Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Now, according to another study, metabolism can increase by as much as 40% in response to overfeeding. However, it said that this much of an increases lasts for only 2 weeks, and then metabolism drops down but is still higher than when you're eating at maintenance.
Role of nonexercise activity thermogenesis in resistance to fat gain in humans.
Levine JA, Eberhardt NL, Jensen MD.
Department of Medicine, Endocrine Research Unit, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

This study here says that metabolism increases by as much as 66% (through NEAT) in response to overfeeding. Once again, this much of an increase would likely only last for 2 weeks according to the other study.
http://64.233.183.104/search?q=cache:5E4Cp4RsmtQJ:www.gghjournal.com/pdf/volume_15/15-2/role.pdf+overfeeding+%226%25+NEAT&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us

The long-term increase in metabolism (due to NEAT) in response to overfeeding after the 2 week period would probably be in that 1-18% figure, likely depending on the Calorie surplus level. This %-range is based on the following study.
http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/44/6/718

Then this study here says that your metabolism increases by as much as 69% through NEAT in response to overfeeding. A really high increase like this would likely remain for only 2 weeks (as the other study suggests) , and then it drops back down but is still higher than when you eat at maintenance.
http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=923145

Robby Coker
11-06-2008, 07:09 PM
I did a bit of updates on the Total Metabolism Calculator.

The following changes were made:

1) Added an option to select your desired units to use for Weight and Height. The selectable units in the Units field are lb (pounds), kg (kilograms), st (stones). If this field is left blank, has a number, or any text other than "lb", "kg", or "st", then all fields in the chart are left blank.

2) Changed the RMR formula from the Harris-Benedict to the Mifflin-St Jeor. The Mifflin-St Jeor is said to be more accurate.

3) Added a Body Fat % field in the same row as the Gender, Age, Height, Weight fields.

3) Added the Katch-McArdle RMR formula, which takes your LBM (lean body mass) into account. Your RMR is calculated from this formula if you enter your body fat percentage in the Body Fat % field. If the Body Fat % field is left blank or contains anything other than a number, then your RMR is calculated from the Mifflin-St Jeor formula.

4) In the Morning Body Temperature field, I added an option to select your desired unit to use for entering your body temperature. The selectable options are C (Celsius) and F (Fahrenheit). If the Unit field is left blank, contains anything other than "F" or "C", or contains anything other than text, then the percentage displays as 0.0%.

5) Edited some pop-up text boxes.

6) Changed the % increase of metabolism to 10% for Omega 3's and 3% for the "hot foods" field. Also, for the Omega 3 field, I set a dosage criteria.

7) Fixed some issues where the #VALUE! error was occuring in some of the Total Calorie Expenditure fields.


The updated calculator is here:

KlimTheSmartCow
11-06-2008, 07:24 PM
I love the calculator, and I need to read up on the articles behind it, def bookmarking this thread

liftjunkie06
11-06-2008, 07:36 PM
serious reps for the work. Nice theory.

Robby Coker
11-07-2008, 03:17 PM
I did a small update on the Metabolism Calculator. These were just a couple of minor fixes.

The following changes were made:

1) The pop-up text box in the Unit field (where you enter the desired unit for body temperature) was displaying info pertaining to body temperature entry rather than unit entry.

I fixed that, and the pop-up text now shows information pertaining to entering the desired unit for body temperature measurement.

In the Unit field,
entering "F" will calculate the temperature value as degrees Fahrenheit. entering "C" will calculate the temperature value as degrees Celsius.


2) The pop-up text box in the "weight lifting" field was displaying to the left of the field. I fixed that, and it now displays where it's supposed to.


Here's the update.

US_Ranger
11-07-2008, 03:29 PM
Lol, I downloaded all of them. I should have skipped to the end of the thread to avoid having to do that.


Awesome thread by the way. This was actually being discusses in here over the last couple days. Some good reading for the next couple days and I can't wait to mess with the calculator.

Jules Verne
11-07-2008, 04:52 PM
I found some things on Adaptive Thermogenesis, also called NEAT (Non-Exercise Adaptive Thermogenesis).


So basically, if you are bulking and find it hard to gain weight, STOP FIDGETING!

Actually this reminds me very much of one of my sons who is skinny despite eating a ton of food (he's 4 years old).

He is generally very active/fidgety, but when we took him camping for the second time he was about 2. During the night I heard this strange sound, so I lifted up my head and it was coming from his playpen, where he was sleeping.

Well, while asleep (on his stomach, legs tucked under) he was literally bouncing in the playpen, like he was humping it. I just thought F**ing hell, even in his sleep that kid can't stay still, WTF, no wonder he can eat so much.

I guess off the top of my head, that on a 'hungry' day (which might last for a week, or at least several days) he eats about 1600kcal, maybe even a little more. Breakfast is a bowl of oats with milk, raisins, banana, a bit of cereal and some honey. He weighs less than 40lb. WTF am I going to do when he's a teenager?

KlimTheSmartCow
11-07-2008, 05:03 PM
So basically, if you are bulking and find it hard to gain weight, STOP FIDGETING!

Actually this reminds me very much of one of my sons who is skinny despite eating a ton of food (he's 4 years old).

He is generally very active/fidgety, but when we took him camping for the second time he was about 2. During the night I heard this strange sound, so I lifted up my head and it was coming from his playpen, where he was sleeping.

Well, while asleep (on his stomach, legs tucked under) he was literally bouncing in the playpen, like he was humping it. I just thought F**ing hell, even in his sleep that kid can't stay still, WTF, no wonder he can eat so much.

I guess off the top of my head, that on a 'hungry' day (which might last for a week, or at least several days) he eats about 1600kcal, maybe even a little more. Breakfast is a bowl of oats with milk, raisins, banana, a bit of cereal and some honey. He weighs less than 40lb. WTF am I going to do when he's a teenager?
just hope he doesnt get obsessed w/ bodybuilding, you dont want him trying to get to 200 lbs on top of that metabolism

US_Ranger
11-08-2008, 02:33 AM
Your calculator told me I needed 4,000 calories a day for maintenance. That's about how much I was eating for maintenance back home but that was with 6x week weights plus 1x week sprints/plyos plus 2x week soccer games plus 2x week mountain biking.

Here I'm hitting the gym 5x a week and playing a little soccer. I don't think I need 4,000 calories......

Robby Coker
11-08-2008, 02:50 AM
Your calculator told me I needed 4,000 calories a day for maintenance. That's about how much I was eating for maintenance back home but that was with 6x week weights plus 1x week sprints/plyos plus 2x week soccer games plus 2x week mountain biking.

Here I'm hitting the gym 5x a week and playing a little soccer. I don't think I need 4,000 calories......

What version of the chart did you use (v1.0, v1.1, v1.2, or v1.3) to get that figure?

What's your weight/height/age and BF%?

Did you enter in your BF% (if using version 1.3)?

Version 1.3 of the Metabolism Calculator uses the Katch-McArdle formula if you enter in your BF%. This formula takes your LBM into account.

What activity factor did you use? Based on your current activity level, you're somewhere between moderately and very active. So, the activity factor for you would be 1.638

When you were back at home, your activity factor would have been 1.9

US_Ranger
11-08-2008, 02:59 AM
I'm using the latest version you put up

age: 26
height: 71 inches
weight: 185
bodyfat: not really sure. I think I'm around 10% but I put 12% to be safe. I also tried leaving it blank.

BMRx1.55 (mid since it's 5x a week gym)
metabolism: mid

Then I answered all the other questions I could answer and it came to around 4,000.

Robby Coker
11-08-2008, 03:12 AM
I'm using the latest version you put up

age: 26
height: 71 inches
weight: 185

bodyfat: not really sure. I think I'm around 10% but I put 12% to be safe. I also tried leaving it blank.
Many times, our BF% is higher than we think.

The most reliable methods of BF testing are 7 or 9 point caliper test, hydrostatic weighing, or dexa. You could also post pics in the Post Your Pictures section and have other members on here guess and give you an idea.

The electric scales aren't accurate in terms of giving the actual BF% value.


BMRx1.55 (mid since it's 5x a week gym)
metabolism: mid

Then I answered all the other questions I could answer and it came to around 4,000.

With the Mifflin RMR formula (the one that's used if you don't enter in a BF%), it shows your maintenance level at 3320. That's with "yes" for weight lifting and "no" for everything else.

Also, there's Adaptive Thermogenesis, and it's possible that your maintenance level can get as high as 4000 due to this. Under the above conditions, at an Adaptive Thermogenic capacity of 18% and a Calorie surplus of 500, your maintenance level would be about 4000. With 1% Adaptive Thermogenic capacity and a 500 Calorie surplus, it would be only 3400.

What other things did you put "yes" for?

Are you trying to bulk, cut, or maintain?

US_Ranger
11-08-2008, 03:31 AM
Many times, our BF% is higher than we think.

The most reliable methods of BF testing are 7 or 9 point caliper test, hydrostatic weighing, or dexa. You could also post pics in the Post Your Pictures section and have other members on here guess and give you an idea.

The electric scales aren't accurate in terms of giving the actual BF% value.



With the Mifflin RMR formula (the one that's used if you don't enter in a BF%), it shows your maintenance level at 3320. That's with "yes" for weight lifting and "no" for everything else.

Also, there's Adaptive Thermogenesis, and it's possible that your maintenance level can get as high as 4000 due to this. At an Adaptive Thermogenic capacity of 18% and a Calorie surplus of 500, your maintenance level would be about 4000. With 1% Adaptive Thermogenic capacity and a 500 Calorie surplus, it would be only 3400.

What other things did you put "yes" for?

Are you trying to bulk, cut, or maintain?

I'm aware of the bodyfat measurements. I've also done the caliper tests and it showed me at about 6%, which is completely wrong. I store all my fat in the love handle/lower back area so I don't really have much bodyfat anywhere else. The calipers don't take that into account. I don't use bodyfat scales either. The last one I tried told me I was at 30% bodyfat.

OK, as for the Excel, I left the bodyfat blank on this one.

activity factor: 1.55
metabolism: mid
macro:
carb-25%
protein-40%
fat-35%

3-4 servings of dairy: yes (4 unflavored activia yogurts a day)
green tea: yes (NOW green tea extract)
high caffeine intake: blank (CL Reduction in morning plus 1 cop of coffee later)
hot foods: yes (Tunisian spice on the ol' eggs/egg whites)
use fat burners: yes (Lean Xtreme + Reduction)
lift weights: yes
smoke: no
energy balance: blank
omega 3: blank (does anyone really take 20+ grams a day???)

AT MAINTENANCE LEVEL: 4236
Metabolic Rating: 148% (no adaptive thermogenisis category)

Hmmmm......

edit: I'm cutting right now. When I get back to the US I'm probably going to put 5 pounds on around Christmas time. :D

KlimTheSmartCow
11-08-2008, 05:16 AM
I'm aware of the bodyfat measurements. I've also done the caliper tests and it showed me at about 6%, which is completely wrong. I store all my fat in the love handle/lower back area so I don't really have much bodyfat anywhere else. The calipers don't take that into account. I don't use bodyfat scales either. The last one I tried told me I was at 30% bodyfat.

OK, as for the Excel, I left the bodyfat blank on this one.

activity factor: 1.55
metabolism: mid
macro:
carb-25%
protein-40%
fat-35%

3-4 servings of dairy: yes (4 unflavored activia yogurts a day)
green tea: yes (NOW green tea extract)
high caffeine intake: blank (CL Reduction in morning plus 1 cop of coffee later)
hot foods: yes (Tunisian spice on the ol' eggs/egg whites)
use fat burners: yes (Lean Xtreme + Reduction)
lift weights: yes
smoke: no
energy balance: blank
omega 3: blank (does anyone really take 20+ grams a day???)

AT MAINTENANCE LEVEL: 4236
Metabolic Rating: 148% (no adaptive thermogenisis category)

Hmmmm......

edit: I'm cutting right now. When I get back to the US I'm probably going to put 5 pounds on around Christmas time. :D

id like to point out here that I have always worked out 7 + times a week, I lift 4 x, rock climb 2x, and run on my off lifting days, making it 9 "workouts" a week. However, I have always gotten most accurate (closest to my actual maintenance) using the "3-4" times a week, or 1.375 Activity factor. So I just use that on all MR calculators

MuscleMom
11-08-2008, 06:03 AM
hmmm...interesting topic.

US_Ranger
11-08-2008, 06:05 AM
id like to point out here that I have always worked out 7 + times a week, I lift 4 x, rock climb 2x, and run on my off lifting days, making it 9 "workouts" a week. However, I have always gotten most accurate (closest to my actual maintenance) using the "3-4" times a week, or 1.375 Activity factor. So I just use that on all MR calculators

Not bad for a 78 year old. :D

I'll try and calculate that to see if it helps.....

3758.

That still seems high. Hell, I know I eat A LOT of food when I'm home but that's with ~10 exercise sessions a week. I don't see any reason that I would need to consume over 3500+ calories here while hitting the gym for 1h15min 5x a week. Granted, I feel hungry all day with the low cals but I feel hungry all day eating 4,000 calories a day as well. Something isn't right with the math on this thing....

Robby Coker
11-08-2008, 01:39 PM
Not bad for a 78 year old. :D

I'll try and calculate that to see if it helps.....

3758.

That still seems high. Hell, I know I eat A LOT of food when I'm home but that's with ~10 exercise sessions a week. I don't see any reason that I would need to consume over 3500+ calories here while hitting the gym for 1h15min 5x a week. Granted, I feel hungry all day with the low cals but I feel hungry all day eating 4,000 calories a day as well. Something isn't right with the math on this thing....

When you feel hungry all day, it generally indicates that you're not eating enough, or if you're cutting (as you are), you're eating too much below maintenance.

Also, your metabolism is generally somewhat lower when cutting than it is when maintaining or bulking.

Robby Coker
11-08-2008, 02:33 PM
I did a quite a bit of updates, changes, and added some features on the Metabolism Calculator.


The following changes were made:

1) Moved BMI Calculator to the right of the Base Expenditure Calculator

2) Added an option to select your desired energy unit as either Calories or Joules

In the Energy Unit field up top, enter "c" for Calories or "j" for Joules.

3) In the Activity Factors field, I changed "BMR" to "RMR".

4) I made changes on the "dairy" section and made it where you have to enter a quantity (it's no longer "yes" or "no"). I also changed the % value of it where if you enter less than a certain value (which is 2), then the % will show as negative (people with low or no dairy intakes have a slower metabolism). If it is at that certain value, then it shows as 0.0%. If it's above that value, then it shows 2.5% for every extra serving of dairy on top of that. The % increase in metabolism is capped at 10.0.

5) In the Unit field of the Morning Body Temperature section, I added an option to select Kelvins as your desired temperature unit.

In the Unit field of this section, enter:

f - for Fahrenheit
c - for Celsius
k - for Kelvin

6) In the "Omega 3" section, along with the "yes" or "no" field, you now have to enter the number of capsules. The % of metabolism increase is capped at 14 at (30 Capsules/day, which is the most Omega 3 that has ever been used in a study of any condition).

7) In the "fat-burners" section, along with the "yes" or "no" field, you now have to enter how many fat-burners or fat-loss supplements that you take per day. If this field is left blank, then it assumes that you only take one.

8) For the "yes" or "no" sections, you now only have to put "y" for yes or "n" for no. You no longer have to spell them out completely.

9) Each value in the BMI Calculator now displays the unit beside it.

10) All fields involving energy calculations now automatically display your desired energy unit (which you entered up top). For example:

no energy unit entered - "Total Expenditure"
energy unit entered as "c" (Calories) - "Total Calorie Expenditure"
energy unit entered as "j" (Joules) - "Total Joule Expenditure"

11) Added version number at bottom of chart

12) Fixed an issue in the Energy Deficit maintenance level fields that caused them to give the #VALUE! error

13) Edited pop-up text boxes to accommodate the changes

14) Used "freeze panes" functions and made it where the calculator title always shows up at the top

15) Some other changes/bug fixes


The updated version is here:

US_Ranger
11-08-2008, 02:33 PM
When you feel hungry all day, it generally indicates that you're not eating enough, or if you're cutting (as you are), you're eating too much below maintenance.

Also, your metabolism is generally somewhat lower when cutting than it is when maintaining or bulking.

Yeah, I understand that. However, I'm hungry all the time regardless of how much I eat. You should see me when I'm back home. I go to Trader Joes every other day. That amount of food keeps me around 187-193 pounds. Now I'm cutting by eating less. Yes, I'm more hungry than I am at home but I'm also exercising much less. I also don't have a scale to check my weight (185 last I looked though) but I can see more ab definition and my strength isn't going down by too much. I also refeed BIG on Sundays.

Anyway, I'm just wondering what sort of math is working in the Excel program. I notice that if I put "no" for dairy or "yes" for smoking, the cals move around up to 300-400 calories. Do you honestly think dairy (assuming the total caloric intake is the same) can account for an extra 300 calories?

Robby Coker
11-08-2008, 02:42 PM
Yeah, I understand that. However, I'm hungry all the time regardless of how much I eat. You should see me when I'm back home. I go to Trader Joes every other day. That amount of food keeps me around 187-193 pounds. Now I'm cutting by eating less. Yes, I'm more hungry than I am at home but I'm also exercising much less. I also don't have a scale to check my weight (185 last I looked though) but I can see more ab definition and my strength isn't going down by too much. I also refeed BIG on Sundays.

Anyway, I'm just wondering what sort of math is working in the Excel program. I notice that if I put "no" for dairy or "yes" for smoking, the cals move around up to 300-400 calories. Do you honestly think dairy (assuming the total caloric intake is the same) can account for an extra 300 calories?
I just uploaded v1.4 of the calculator.

In this newest version, you now have to enter a quantity for dairy. The % for this section is capped at 10.
So, 4 servings now only give 5%.
0 servings gives -5% (people who take in little or no dairy have slower metabolisms)
2 servings (assuming it's the average intake) gives 0%.

Also, in the fat-burners section, you now have to enter the number of them that you're taking.

In the Omega 3 section, I also made it where you have to enter the number of capsules you take per day.

In the next version, I may put in the "smoking" a field where you have to enter the number of cigarettes per day along with the "yes" or "no" response. The % is capped at 10.

Robby Coker
11-08-2008, 02:59 PM
hmmm...interesting topic.

One of the things that prompted me to create this thread and to create the Metabolism Calculator was a post that someone made in a thread in the teen section claiming that his very skinny science teacher eats 7000 Calories to maintain his weight even though his activity level (which the activity factor 1.375 matches most) wouldn't call for anywhere near that amount.

So, I made list of criteria that this person would have to meet in order to actually have a maintenance level of 7000 for his activity level. If he didn't meet them, then he would be over-estimating his intake.

Here's my post about this:
http://forum.bodybuilding.com/showpost.php?p=236135541&postcount=28

Some of the percentages used in this post are higher than what I've put into the Metabolism Calculator for each critera as I thought those were the %'s at the time for each one.

US_Ranger
11-08-2008, 03:25 PM
I just uploaded v1.4 of the calculator.

In this newest version, you now have to enter a quantity for dairy. The % for this section is capped at 10.
So, 4 servings now only give 5%.
0 servings gives -5% (people who take in little or no dairy have slower metabolisms)
2 servings (assuming it's the average intake) gives 0%.

Also, in the fat-burners section, you now have to enter the number of them that you're taking.

In the Omega 3 section, I also made it where you have to enter the number of capsules you take per day.

In the next version, I may put in the "smoking" a field where you have to enter the number of cigarettes per day along with the "yes" or "no" response. The % is capped at 10.

Good deal.

So uh....where is it? :D

littlebutbig
11-08-2008, 03:34 PM
Good deal.

So uh....where is it? :D

Page 1 at the bottom, post #30

http://forum.bodybuilding.com/showpost.php?p=243071381&postcount=30

US_Ranger
11-09-2008, 01:18 AM
It's down to 3700 with v 1.4 so that's good. I like the newer version with a more exact questioning system. Good improvements OP.

I like the percentages that show up under the category too. A question though....how did you find what % would be accurate for each question. For example, the green tea use raises it by 4%. How did you come to that conclusion?

I still think the calorie count is a bit high but it's much better than it was. Thanks again.

Robby Coker
11-09-2008, 01:59 AM
It's down to 3700 with v 1.4 so that's good. I like the newer version with a more exact questioning system. Good improvements OP.

I like the percentages that show up under the category too. A question though....how did you find what % would be accurate for each question. For example, the green tea use raises it by 4%. How did you come to that conclusion?

I still think the calorie count is a bit high but it's much better than it was. Thanks again.

I did a bit of research on them.

Here's a site about the metabolism increase of Green Tea.
http://www.webmd.com/news/19991128/green-tea-boosts-metabolism-protects-against-diseases

I derived the percentages for dairy from a study posted on the following site:
http://www.runnersworld.com/article/0,7120,s6-242-303-307-7143-0,00.html

I read on the forum as well that individual fat-burners increase metabolism by 2-5%. I put a value between in that range in the "fat-burners" section.

The following pages suggest that Cigarettes increase metabolism. However, a percentage value wasn't given. It says that metabolism increases in response to the number of Cigarettes smoked per day. So, the more of them you smoke, the more your metabolism increases.

By dividing the average BMR of the smokers by the average BMR of the non-smokers, I get 13.4%. I had put it as 10% on the chart because I saw it on a site somewhere but can't find it.
http://ard.bmj.com/cgi/content/abstract/67/1/70

The site here says that quitting smoking decreases your metabolism by 12-16%. These were women who had smoked at least a pack of cigarettes per day. So, this means that smoking Cigarettes, at at least 1 pack per day, increases metabolism by 12-16%.
http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Exercise+helps+you+quit+-+for+good.+(quit+smoking)-a014244371

A site I found suggested that Caffeine increases metabolism by 3-4%. However, the site sells products, so I can't post the link of it, but I will give the information on the sources posted on it. Here goes:
1. Falk B, Burstein R, Rosenbloom J, et al: Effects of caffeine ingestion on body fluid balance and thermoregulation during exercise. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1990;68(7):889-892
2. Gordon NF, Myburgh JL, Kruger PE, et al: Effects of caffeine ingestion on thermoregulatory and myocardial function during endurance performance. S Afr Med J 1982;62(18):644-647
3. Graham TE, Spriet LL: Caffeine and exercise performance. Sports Science Exchange (Gatorade Sports Science Institute) 1996;9(1)
4. Caffeine induces dopamine and glutamate release in the shell of the nucleus accumbens by Solinas M, Ferre S, You ZB, Karcz-Kubicha M, Popoli P, Goldberg SR. Section of Preclinical Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA. J Neurosci 2002 Aug 1;22(15):6321-4

The site here says that eating hot peppers increases metabolism by 10-40% after eating them (probably depends on the amount eating), and it stays elevated for a few hours. Over a 24 hour period, that's 1.3-5% increase. On the the hot peppers section of the chart, I currently have it as 3%. However, only the very hot peppers such as jalapeno, cayenne, habanere, etc. significantly increase metabolism upon eating them.
http://www.wholefitness.com/weightlosstips.html

As far as the "weight lifting" %, I saw 5% somewhere. However, I can't find the site that showed it. I think it was a post on the forum that suggested that the metabolism increase after weight lifting is 5%.

US_Ranger
11-09-2008, 02:13 AM
Wow, a lot of research and a lot of work. I'm impressed. I guess it will continue to become more and more accurate as studies show new values. Please keep this thread bumped if you change anything.

Also, if anyone else has studies to add in that would challenge any of these percentages, it would probably be good. The more research, the better the program.

imccarthy
11-09-2008, 03:42 AM
Great job with this, I've made a similar tool in the past but never this detailed.

One addition I would recommend is an option for low-carb dieting, as one of the negative effects of very low carb (ketogenic) dieting is a severe drop in thyroid (T3) levels and thus a considerable decrease in BMR. I don't know the exact percentage decrease but I will look for research... I can tell you it's a pretty big drop.

Robby Coker
11-09-2008, 09:13 PM
Great job with this, I've made a similar tool in the past but never this detailed.

One addition I would recommend is an option for low-carb dieting, as one of the negative effects of very low carb (ketogenic) dieting is a severe drop in thyroid (T3) levels and thus a considerable decrease in BMR. I don't know the exact percentage decrease but I will look for research... I can tell you it's a pretty big drop.

A drop in thyroid function generally shows up as a drop in morning body temperature.

So, if one is low-carb/keto dieting, and his thyroid slows, then his morning body temperature is likely to drop in the amount proportion to the slowdown of thyroid function.

One of the mechanisms by which the Starvation Response occurs is by reduction of thyroid function.

Every 1 degree drop in body temperature represents a 7% slow down in metabolism.


One thing I thought about adding is an "artificial sweeteners" section. Various studies show that artificial sweeteners change your metabolism.

Here are some pages I've found showing that they slow your metabolism:
http://janetshealthyliving.blogspot.com/2008/05/sweet-nothings-how-artificial.html
http://www.retailwire.com/Discussions/Sngl_Discussion.cfm/13121
http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2008/04/26/how-does-aspartame-damage-your-brain.aspx
http://www.slashfood.com/2008/09/25/could-splenda-contribute-to-weight-gain/

imccarthy
11-10-2008, 12:51 AM
A drop in thyroid function generally shows up as a drop in morning body temperature.

So, if one is low-carb/keto dieting, and his thyroid slows, then his morning body temperature is likely to drop in the amount proportion to the slowdown of thyroid function.

One of the mechanisms by which the Starvation Response occurs is by reduction of thyroid function.

Every 1 degree drop in body temperature represents a 7% slow down in metabolism.

Duh! I don't know how I missed that haha...

PullAndBear
11-10-2008, 09:32 PM
wow awesome calculator. reps on recharge!!

LehighLuke
11-10-2008, 10:59 PM
Nice tool. I am an excel geek too. I made a couple things for my health obsession....thought you would get a kick out of it.

Here's my take on a Daily Diet Planner. This is an update to a posting I made a while ago.

Also, two words for you: "Data Validation"

its a feature in excel that builds drop down lists in cells that force only certain values to be entered. Its under Data - > Validation...use the list setting

icery
11-10-2008, 11:22 PM
a bit off topic but temperature related

when i've used dnp, i've hit 600mg a day for quite sometime.. after about 4-5 days of this dose metabolism increases on average about 90% and i can lose around a lb a day. even with that increase it isn't uncommon for me to actually be in the 96.xx with regards to body temperature. i've often wondered if this was do to body cooling itself or somesort of a starvation response. next time i'd like to come off every 10 days, have a 2 day refeed/load and see what happens with body temp when i resume

Robby Coker
11-10-2008, 11:24 PM
Nice tool. I am an excel geek too. I made a couple things for my health obsession....thought you would get a kick out of it.

Here's my take on a Daily Diet Planner. This is an update to a posting I made a while ago.
Your chart is excellent.


Also, two words for you: "Data Validation"

its a feature in excel that builds drop down lists in cells that force only certain values to be entered. Its under Data - > Validation...use the list setting
Thanks for the tip. I'll try this feature out.

Robby Coker
11-12-2008, 06:52 AM
Here's an update of the Total Metabolism Calculator.

The following changes were made from Version 1.4 to Version 1.5:

1) Changed all data input fields so that they now display an error message if you enter an invalid value (Thanks goes to LehighLuke for telling me about this function.)

Examples of invalid values are:
-text in a field that requires a numerical value
-a numerical value in a field that requires you to enter an answer in text format
-an input that is not one of the selectable options on a given field
-a numerical value that is out of range for a given field

2) Modified some of the formulas so that they are not as long

3) Edited all pop-up text boxes to accomodate the changes

4) On the Metabolic Speed Variation section, I did the following modifications:
-changed the word "Metabolism" to "Metabolic"
-made it where you only have to enter the first letter of a given option ("f" for fast, "a" for average, "s" for slow)
-changed the option for "moderate/average metabolism" from "m" mid to "a" average. This is because whenever you try to enter "m" or "mid", the text in the above field appears.

5) Modified some labels for better clarity.

6) I modified the "smoking" section so that, along with a "y" yes answer, you now have to enter a quantity.

7) Changed the % metabolic increase for the "hot foods" section from 3.0 to 3.2 . I found out that 24-hour metabolic increase ranges from 1.3-5%.

8) In the "fat-burners" field, I capped the quantity of fat-burners/fat loss supplements to 9. If you enter any quantity above 9, then you will get an error message.

9) Made some other minor changes and fixed a few bugs


I also wrote up a readme file and included it with the current version. All versions from now on will include a readme file.

The current version of the Total Metabolism Calculator is here:

GTmauf
11-12-2008, 07:05 AM
Awesome stuff man, Subbed for future updates !

bmx2962
11-16-2008, 06:26 PM
I'm a little confused about the difference between the 1% and 18% adaptive thermogenesis.

Are you supposed to fall somewhere in between those two numbers. If it spits out my actual surplus to be 120 and 240 at 1% and 18% AT, how do I know where I actually am?

Robby Coker
11-16-2008, 06:59 PM
I'm a little confused about the difference between the 1% and 18% adaptive thermogenesis.
18% is the high end.

18% basically means that you have a high adaptive thermogenic capacity.

Adaptive Thermogenesis (AT) is the ability dissipate excess Calories as heat.

This explains the individual variation in the amount of weight gained for a given calculated surplus.


Are you supposed to fall somewhere in between those two numbers.
Most people fall somewhere in between. Hard gainers may be at the high end of this range.


If it spits out my actual surplus to be 120 and 240 at 1% and 18% AT, how do I know where I actually am?
Go by how much weight you're gaining each week.

Let's say that you want to create a 500 Calorie surplus in order to gain 1 lb/week.

If your AT capacity is minimal (at 1%), then your calculated 500 Calorie surplus will yield roughly 1 lb/week. So, the rate of weight gain will essentially match your calculated surplus.

However, if your AT capacity is higher, then with the 500 Calorie surplus that you created, you wouldn't gain 1 pound per week. You would probably gain more like 0.5 lb/week, 0.25 lb/week, etc. If your AT capacity is high enough, then that calculated 500 Calorie surplus won't yield any weight gain.

So, when finding your Calorie intake to gain weight at your desired rate, start out with the intake based on 1% AT. If you do not gain at your desired rate given your calculated surplus, then raise your intake, and keep raising it until you are actually gaining at your desired rate (based on the surplus you calculated).

JC480
11-16-2008, 08:01 PM
Hi Robby

Maybe I missed this (sorry) but does your program factor age as part of the equation?

i.e. every year over a baseline of, say, 20? the metabolism calcs would decrease by 2% (or whatever the correct number is...not sure if males/females draw down at an equal rate)

Example:
Army Ranger came up with 3700 calories as his maintenance (according to program)

Age: 20 3700
Age: 21 3700*0.98 is 3626
Age: 22 3553
Age: 23 3482
~~~~~
Age: 26 3277 calories
Age: 42 2300 calories
etc etc

Robby Coker
11-16-2008, 08:08 PM
Hi Robby

Maybe I missed this (sorry) but does your program factor age as part of the equation?
Age is factored into the RMR formula.

The program uses the Mifflin-St. Jeor RMR formula if no body fat percentage is entered.


i.e. every year over a baseline of, say, 20? the metabolism calcs would decrease by 2% (or whatever the correct number is...not sure if males/females draw down at an equal rate)
Yes. The RMR formula takes into account the RMR slowdown due to aging.

A 6'0 160 lb male who is 20 years old will have a higher RMR than a male at that same weight/height who is 40.


Great work, btw.
Thanks. :)

JC480
11-16-2008, 08:16 PM
Have you checked the results of your personal calcs via BMR measurement machine?

Robby Coker
11-17-2008, 02:54 AM
Have you checked the results of your personal calcs via BMR measurement machine?
I've never used one of those machines before.

Robby Coker
11-17-2008, 01:00 PM
Here's an updated version of the Total Metabolism Calculator.


The following changes were made from Version 1.5 to Version 1.6:

1) Added a Regimen Goal Setter. Now, you can set weight goals whether you are bulking or cutting.

2) Added a "water intake" section. In this part, you enter the number of oz. of water you drink per day on average. The percent increase here is capped at 5.

3) On the "smoking" part, the percentages were showing more than 16% if you enter in a certain number of cigarretes. I fixed this, and the metabolism increase for cigarretes is now capped at 16%.

4) I fixed a problem where percent increase in the "Omega 3" part was going over 14 whenever you entered more than a certain number of capsules. This part is now capped at 14%.

5) Switched the locations of the Metabolic Speed Variation field and the Activity Factor field. The Metabolic Speed Variation is now under the Resting Metabolic field, and the Activity Factor field is below it.

6) In the Resting Metabolic Rate field, the adjusted RMR, when you select "s" slow or "f" fast, is now displayed. I changed some formulas in the Total Expenditure section so that, first, the variation percentage gets multiplied by the calculated RMR, and then the activity factor then gets multiplied by the adjusted RMR, and so on.

7) Modified certain formulas in order to remove conditions that I found unnecessary. This makes the formulas not as long and removes any clutter within them.

8) Modified some of the Error boxes for better clarity.

9) In the BMI Calculator section, I modified the Height and Weight fields so that they don't display units whenever there is no value in there.

10) Some other changes and fixes.


You can get the newest version here:

US_Ranger
11-19-2008, 09:12 AM
Just a heads up (don't know if it's just my download or not) but when I try to enter "m" into the gender category, it gets mixed up with some formula below and won't let me. I know jack **** about how to go about fixing it since I don't really know Microsoft products very well.

Sleepstream
11-19-2008, 09:18 AM
Have you taken the temperature of the environment into account for this calculator?

With the cold setting in around many regions, body temperatures may decrease slightly, and that can affect BMR.

Robby Coker
11-19-2008, 09:58 AM
Just a heads up (don't know if it's just my download or not) but when I try to enter "m" into the gender category, it gets mixed up with some formula below and won't let me. I know jack **** about how to go about fixing it since I don't really know Microsoft products very well.

I was having that problem as well. I'm not sure why it started doing it. It didn't do it in previous versions.

I went to Tools > Options > Edit and disabled AutoComplete for cell values by unchecking "Enable AutoComplete for cell values".

I thought this setting would do it on just the Total Metabolism Calculator itself, and the setting would be the same regardless of what computer or copy of Excel that the Total Metabolism Calculator is used on.

However, the setting applies only for the given copy of Excel, not the workbook itself.

Robby Coker
11-21-2008, 11:46 AM
Update on Total Metabolism Calculator

11/21/08 - Changes from Version 1.6 to Version 1.7

* In each field of the Activity Factors list, I switched the activity factor value from the end of the description to the beginning of it. This fixed the problem where whenever you enter "m" for male in the Gender field, the cell would try to auto complete it with text from another section.

* In the Total Expenditures section, I changed the title of this from Total Expenditure to Total Metabolism.

* I modified the output fields in the Total Metabolism section in the Total Metabolism Calculator so that it would be possible to display everything using much fewer cells or rows. I modified the labels to accomodate these changes.

* Some other minor changes


You can get it here:

Robby Coker
11-21-2008, 11:48 AM
Have you taken the temperature of the environment into account for this calculator?

With the cold setting in around many regions, body temperatures may decrease slightly, and that can affect BMR.
sorry for the delay in the reply

Anyway, I don't have a section for climate. I might include it in a later version.

I wonder, though, if any climatic effects on RMR would show up as a lower or higher core body temperature than otherwise.

tonutzda2@veriz
11-23-2008, 08:15 PM
good stuff robby thanks a bunch

Robby Coker
11-23-2008, 08:16 PM
good stuff robby thanks a bunch
You're welcome.

TheGladiator05
11-23-2008, 10:02 PM
awesome bro thanks a bunch helped me out a bunch

Robby Coker
02-10-2009, 01:46 PM
Here's an update of the Total Metabolism Calculator.

02/10/09 - Changes from Version 1.7 to Version 1.8:

1) Re-organized the mechanics & core.

2) Added a switch in the mechanics section in order to make the functions that control the top RMR display less complicated.

3) Made minor modification to the formulas for the cutting TDEE's. The "without starvation response TDEE" is now multiplied by (1 - SR%) rather than divided by (1 + SR%).

4) On the "yes or no" factors, I've now set it where you enter "y" for yes, or just leave the field blank for no. I've modified the text boxes to accomodate these changes.

5) In the BMI Calculator section & the Regimen Goal Setter, the lbs unit, beside the weight figure, was displaying a period at the end of it. I fixed it.

6) In the Joules version of the Mifflin-St.Jeor RMR formula, I accidentally had "f" rather than "j" as the value of the Units variable in the IF statement function. I fixed this.

7) I modified the thermogenic values of protein and fat. From some reading I've done, the thermogenic value of protein actually ranges from 20-30%, and fat ranges from only 0-3%. So, I went with 25% on protein and 1.5% on fat. This brings the thermogenic effect of food (TEF) of the typical American diet (which is set as default for this calculator) down to 9.3%

8) Made few other minor changes & bug fixes.

You can get it here.

reefpicker
02-10-2009, 03:20 PM
sorry for the delay in the reply

Anyway, I don't have a section for climate. I might include it in a later version.

I wonder, though, if any climatic effects on RMR would show up as a lower or higher core body temperature than otherwise.

It wouldn't.

This might be one problem with metabolism, it depends on so many factors.

For example, if it is too cold outside, the body will first shut down circulation to the periphery, yet even when it does that it still needs to provide some circulation to the periphery. So, while the brain is warm, your hands and feet get cold.

At some point, if you think of the body as a radiator, all that heat dissipating and getting lost, will mean that your metabolism has to kick in, to burn more calories in order to keep the temperature up. Sometimes that means shivering, which we are all familiar with.

Shivering will certainly keep the temperature near that 100% mark for BMR, but it will mean an increase in temperature.

A similar effect will occur when you are submerged in water.

An increase in core circulation and a decrease in peripheral circulation is what probably accounts for the diuretic effects of cold weather.

Bottom line: To keep the body temperature stable (by homeostasis) under different environmental demands (cold, hot, humidity, fever and exercise will all have some effect), metabolism (as calories burned by muscle under resting conditions) will increase or decrease. Thus, it is not a good barometer for measuring metabolism.

Having said that, I have to give your calculator a try. I am impressed by the work you did. My former advisor was also very interested in modeling, and he did a lot of work with blood acid/base models (for anethesiologist) and respiratory models for med students. This could be a very promising idea.

:)

Robby Coker
02-10-2009, 06:18 PM
It wouldn't.

This might be one problem with metabolism, it depends on so many factors.

For example, if it is too cold outside, the body will first shut down circulation to the periphery, yet even when it does that it still needs to provide some circulation to the periphery. So, while the brain is warm, your hands and feet get cold.
Weight gain is often a problem for many people in the winter time. However, this is mainly due to less activity since people stay inside & hibernate due to colder temps outside.

Another reason is the Holiday Season from end of October (Halloween) to beginning of January (New Years Day). One other factor is Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), which is seasonal depression mostly due to lack of light.
http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/exchange/node/45
Two symptoms are appetite & weight increase.
People who exercise in the winter months are more likely able to evade SAD.

According to this page, colder temperatures force your metabolism to run higher in order to keep you warmer.
http://www.ehow.com/how_4615129_avoid-winter-weight-gain.html
So, if you exercise regularly in cooler weather, then you would probably burn more Calories than if you exercised in warmer weather.


At some point, if you think of the body as a radiator, all that heat dissipating and getting lost, will mean that your metabolism has to kick in, to burn more calories in order to keep the temperature up. Sometimes that means shivering, which we are all familiar with.
This is what tends to happen in Calorie surplus states.

This is called Adaptive Thermogenesis (AT), or rather, Non-Exercise Adaptive Thermogenesis (NEAT).

This is the mechanism where your body dissipates excess Calories as heat, much like the radiator of a car dissipates excess engine heat away. Some people have a high capacity for this; others only have a very minimal capacity.

AT gives an explanation at to why some people can eat a lot of food and not gain a single pound.


Shivering will certainly keep the temperature near that 100% mark for BMR, but it will mean an increase in temperature.

A similar effect will occur when you are submerged in water.

An increase in core circulation and a decrease in peripheral circulation is what probably accounts for the diuretic effects of cold weather.

Bottom line: To keep the body temperature stable (by homeostasis) under different environmental demands (cold, hot, humidity, fever and exercise will all have some effect), metabolism (as calories burned by muscle under resting conditions) will increase or decrease. Thus, it is not a good barometer for measuring metabolism.
Body temperature is generally an indicator of Thyroid function. A low body temperature usually indicates a hypothyroid condition.


Having said that, I have to give your calculator a try. I am impressed by the work you did.
Thanks.


My former advisor was also very interested in modeling, and he did a lot of work with blood acid/base models (for anethesiologist) and respiratory models for med students. This could be a very promising idea.

:)
Some reasons why I did this calculator are that:
-Most RMR/TDEE calculators do just RMR & activity factor
-Many threads on here going on about "I'm having trouble gaining", "Why can't I gain", "Why can't I lose", etc.
-There are people who claim metabolic rates that are way off the charts from what's normal for their stats & activity levels. For example, they may say, "I'm 120 lbs, eat like 6000 calories/day and cannot gain a pound. I've been doing this for a year & nothing." Another may say, "I'm 230 lbs, eat 1500 Calories/day, and cannot lose any fat."
-What really got me working on the calculator was when I read a post where someone claimed that his skinny science teacher needed 7000 Calories to maintain his weight eventhough his activity level wasn't high. Read the post here:
http://forum.bodybuilding.com/showthread.php?p=236135541
Thread: why can't i gain any weight?

reefpicker
02-11-2009, 10:21 AM
Body temperature is generally an indicator of Thyroid function. A low body temperature usually indicates a hypothyroid condition.


Usually maybe, but not always.

Hormones in general affect body temperature and metabolism (i.e. in women the ovulation cycle makes there temperature change too!).

I hope you did not miss my point... It sounds like you did...

My point is that these two factors I mentioned: humidity and temperature, will have an indirect effect on BMR.

Why? Imagine how your heater works. A thermostat (in the human body, it is in the hypothalamus), kicks on and off in order to keep the temperature constant. Now imagine that you open the door and let a lot of cold air rush in. What happens? The heater kicks in again.... This is why you want to keep your windows closed when the heater (or AC) is on...

Same thing with the human body. Thus, on the question that you asked yourself about how ambient temperature affects BMR, that would be the answer.

Humidity also affects indirectly, because dry air has a different heat conductive capacity and because it also affects the heat exchange at the skin.

I do not think it would be easy to include in your calculations, but you could look into it.

Basically, the higher the heat outside, the less your body has to heat itself and the less calories you will be shunting for that (i.e. drops your BMR).

The colder it is, the more energy you will use to keep yourself warm, and your BMR will go up.

Humidity is a bit more complex to model. Dehydration too...

Dry air can potentially cause more dehydration... As the body dehydrates, your skin might get colder, because of vasoconstriction. The body will then preserve more core heat. Also as the water evaporates from the skin, it will have a cooling effect on the blood that is flowing there. If the body does not vasoconstrict those capillaries, you will loose more heat or at least faster.

Humidity causes the skin to have less evaporative cooling...

Humid air conducts heat faster too... I think...

HTH somehow....

Robby Coker
02-11-2009, 07:20 PM
I just finished up a chart. It's called Regimen Tracker. It tracks the progress of your cutting, bulking, or recompositioning regimen. It can also be used to for simply managing your weight/body composition or just monitoring your metabolism.

Based on daily weigh-ins, daily body fat % readings, daily energy intake, activity levels, and energy burned by exercise, it calculates trends in your body weight, body fat percentage, and energy intake, and it calculates your average energy balance based on these as well.

Additionally, it tracks your metabolism. Each day, your RMR and base TDEE are calculated. Base TDEE is your TDEE with your calculated RMR and activity level factored in. Then, your actual TDEE is calculated. Actual TDEE is how much energy you're actually burning based on actual weight changes relative to your energy intake.

Lastly, your Metabolic Grade is calculated, which essentially shows the condition of your metabolism. It shows how fast it's running.

Here it is:

Robby Coker
02-14-2009, 11:14 AM
Ok, I found the following about the three main body types concerning recommendations for calculated Calorie surpluses for generating weight gain.

Mesomorph: should adopt a surplus of 500Kcal

Ectomorph: if you aren?t gaining weight, raise you calories, but not drastically ? see where your level is, anything up to 600Kcal - 800Kcal over maintenance may be needed to add weight.

Endomorph: Focus on weight training and keep a close eye on calories, you may want to lose fat before bulking. After that bulk slowly, at 200Kcal ? 300Kcal above maintenance.
By James Hart


According to this, each body type gets a different recommended calculated Calorie surplus for gaining weight, presumably, 1/2 pound a week.

Essentially, each body type requires a different number of Calories over their maintenance level before they start gaining.

It looks like the Ectomorph according to this, of course, has the highest adaptive thermogenic capacity out of the other body types. Let's suppose the base maintenance level of a hypothetical Ectomorph here is 2500 Calories. He then adds 700 Calories to his diet to gain 1/2 pound per week. This brings his intake to 3200 Calories. This then makes total TDEE is 2950 Calories/day. 2950/2500 = 1.18.

This would equal 18% Adaptive Thermogenesis.


The Mesomorph appears to be somewhere in the middle. Let's suppose the base maintenance level of a hypothetical mesomorph here is 2500 Calories just like the above Ectomorph's. He then adds 500 Calories to his diet to gain 1/2 pound per week. This brings his intake to 3000 Calories per day. This then makes his TDEE 2750 Calories per day. 3000/2750 equals 1.09.

This would equal 9% Adaptive Thermogenesis.


It appears the Endomorph has no Adaptive Thermogenic capacity, or perhaps, only 1% (that other overfeeding study showed 1% as the minimum). So, they store nearly all surplus Calories. So, let's suppose a hypothetical Endomorph here has a base maintenance level of 2500 Calories per day, and he decides to gain 1/2 pound per week. He would either need exactly 2750 Calories per day, or somewhat more likely, 2775 (1% Adaptive Thermogenesis).


On the next version of Total Metabolism Calculator, I'm going to add a TDEE calculation for 9% Adaptive Thermogenesis. I'm not sure if I'm going to add one for No Adaptive Thermogenesis (just as I already have one for No Starvation Response). I might add one for 7% Starvation Response as well.

Robby Coker
02-17-2009, 09:07 PM
Here is an update of Total Metabolism Calculator.


02/17/09 - Changes from Version 1.8 to Version 1.9:

1) In the Total Metabolism section, I added the following:
-a fourth TDEE level to accomodate 9% Adaptive Thermogenesis and 7% Starvation Response
-a fourth Metabolic Rating field to accomodate 9% Adaptive Thermogenesis and 7% Starvation Response
-a fourth Actual Energy Balance (deficit/surplus) level to accomodate 9% Adaptive Thermogenesis and 7% Starvation Response

2) In the first TDEE level of the Total Metabolism section, I created a function to calculate a Calorie surplus TDEE with no Adaptive Thermogenesis present.

3) For Adaptive Thermogenesis and Starvation Response in the Total Metabolism section, I created some functions so that the corresponding percentages dynamically change in response to degree of energy imbalance based on what is entered into the field in the Energy Balance section. After I did this, I set up the percentages to display in tenths-percent.

4) In the Total Metabolism section, I optimized and cleaned up most of the functions and was able to make them considerably shorter and more organized. Also, I raised the font size of "Total Metabolism".

5) In the Macronutrient Ratios section, I modified some functions because the #VALUE! error would occur if you entered in the wrong type of data although the problem was being masked by something else. I fixed this. Also, I changed the order in the section to:
Protein
Carbs
Fat
That is the common order used on the forums.

6) In the Morning Body Temperature section, I totally redid and optimized the functions and modified a couple formulas a little bit to reduce the size of them. I changed the Kelvin constant from 273 to 273.15 and the Celcius constant from 1.8 to 9/5.

7) In the Regimen Goal Setter, for the Intake Ranges descriptions, I changed SR to Starvation Mode and NEAT to Adapt. Thermo. (Adaptive Thermogenesis abbreviated due to field size limitations). In this same section, I also cleaned up and optimized the functions and made them much shorter.

8) "lb" is now set as the default in the Unit field. This sets pounds as the default unit for weight and inches as the default unit for height.

9) "c" is now set as the default in the Energy Unit field. This sets Calorie as the default unit for energy.

10) "f" is now set as the default in the Unit field of the Morning Body Temperature section. This sets Fahrenheit as the default unit for temperature.

11) Total Metabolism Calculator now starts out at the Gender field when you open it.

12) I resized the Activity Factors list so that it and Regimen Goal Setter are not right next to each other.

13) For the BMI calculator, I changed the title from BMI Calculator to Body Mass Index.

14) Edited pop-up text boxes and message alerts to accomodate changes and correct any mistakes in them

15) Several other minor changes and fixes


The new version can be gotten from here:

determined4000
02-17-2009, 09:46 PM
This thing is awesome
1 thought: Fiber- supposed to increase metabolism

Robby Coker
02-17-2009, 10:18 PM
This thing is awesome
1 thought: Fiber- supposed to increase metabolism
Here's something I found about this.

http://jas.fass.org/cgi/content/abstract/66/3/699

I couldn't seem to find a % figure or range about the increase.

I've read stuff about the Negative Calorie foods before, and I wonder if any physiological effects of them, which are whole fruits and vegetables, has something to do with the higher amounts of fiber.

hole fruits contain lots of fiber, and many contain so much, they can be said to have ?negative calories,? meaning your body burns more calories digesting the food than it stores. One cup of blueberries only has about 80 calories, but 4 grams of fiber. Your body will expend much of those 80 calories digesting the 4 grams of fiber. Blueberries also contain lots of antioxidants, and are believed to lower cholesterol and regulate blood pressure. And they taste great! Try adding them to a high-fiber unsweetened cereal or oatmeal in the morning to get your metabolism up and running at the start of your day.

http://stanford.wellsphere.com/exercise-article/8-foods-to-boost-your-metabolism/538210

Robby Coker
02-25-2009, 12:12 PM
I've been working on version 2.0 of Total Metabolism Calculator for the last week. I'm planning on a good bit of changes including making some changes on the graphical interface making it look more sleek.

One factor I'm planning to add in is Climate as it's been shown that extreme climates can increase your metabolism by 5-20% (weight-loss-center.net). This factor will ask you what the climate in your location is like and will give the corresponding % change. Here's a climate map which gives a guideline on what the climate is like in the different parts of the world. It may help you give an idea of what the climate in your area is like.

http://img14.imageshack.us/img14/781/climateworld.jpg (http://imageshack.us)

On the Climate factor on Total Metabolism Calculator, I plan to have five selectable climates to enter into the field.

I plan to base them off of the Main Climates from the above climate map.
They will be:

1) Polar, Arctic
2) Snow, Cold
3) Warm, Temperate
4) Arid, Hot
5) Equatorial, Tropical

You will be able to see these selections in the pop-up text box by the field, and there will be some info about them in the readme.

So, on the Climate factor,
the Polar/Arctic and Equatorial/Tropical climates will have a metabolic increase of 16.3%.
the Snow/Cold and Arid/Hot climates will have a metabolic increase of 8.8%
the Warm/Temperate climates will be neutral metabolically (0.0%).

((5%+20%)/2)= 12.5% (as the median)
((12.5%+5%)/2) = 8.8%
((12.5%+20%)/2) = 16.3%

For example, in the location where I live (South Carolina, U.S.A.), the climate is temperate, so the climate has no effect on my metabolism.

If you leave the field in the Climate factor blank, then it assumes that you live in a temperate or warm climate.


Another thing I'm planning to implement is variable TEF (Thermal Effect of Food). What this means is that the TEF will be different based on your body fat percentage, or BMI if you don't have a body percentage entered in. Based on various studies, obese people often have blunted thermogenic response to food compared to lean people. Insulin Resistance also decreases thermogenesis, and the higher your level of body fat is, the more insulin resistant you tend to be.
http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S002604950400397X
http://fatnews.com/index.php/weblog/comments/507/
http://www.springerlink.com/content/y53023606x6t7731/

Robby Coker
02-25-2009, 11:39 PM
In the upcoming Version 2.0, I've also redone the functions on the Water Intake section. The % increase value is no longer capped at 5. I found out that drinking water, on average, burns 20.5 Calories per 8 oz.

Based on the text below, room-temperature water burns 16 Calories per 8 oz., and iced water burns 25 Calories per 8 oz. These two values average out to 20.5 Calories.

Ice water. Almost every nutritionist will recommend drinking eight 8-ounce glasses of water every day, but did you know that if you drink iced water versus room-temperature water, your body will burn an extra nine calories per glass? Drinking room-temperature water can burn about 16 calories per glass?that?s 25 calories per glass for iced water. So, eight glasses of cool water a day can be responsible for burning 200 calories! Plus, water is necessary for all of your bodily processes, including the ones that control your metabolism. If you?re underhydrated, your body will underperform. Water also flushes out fat deposits and toxins, which can hamper your energy.
http://stanford.wellsphere.com/exercise-article/8-foods-to-boost-your-metabolism/538210

Take a 25 year old, average height, average weight, male with a maintenance level of 2544 Calories. Add 20.5 to this, and you get 2564.5.
2564.5/2544 = 0.8%. So, this equals a 0.8% increase in metabolism per 8 oz. of water.

48 oz. is assumed to be the average water intake.

Therefore, on Total Metabolism Calculator, only water intake inputs above 48 oz. adds to your Total Daily Expenditure (TDEE). If the Water Intake field is left blank, then it assumes your water intake is 48 oz., and therefore, the % is 0.0. Any input less than 48 oz. is a negative % value meaning a decrease in metabolism. It's a 0.8% decrease for every 8 oz. less than 48 oz as dehydration slows down your metabolism.

The water intake input will be capped at 256. If you try to enter anything above this, then you will get an error message.


Additionally, I've found out that hot foods increase your metabolism by up to 50% for a few hours after consumption rather than up to only 40%. So, the range is 10-50% rather than 10-40%. So, I've changed the % increase value for this in the Hot Foods section from 3.2% to 3.8%.

This is the 24-hour metabolism increase for the hot foods consumption. This % value is derived from:
((10%/24)*3 + (50%/24)*3)/2 = 3.8%

Chilies, curries, and other spices. Ever eaten a particularly spicy meal and felt your heart race a bit faster and your forehead start to perspire? The capsaicin found in many hot peppers and other spices can fire up your metabolism while it fires up your mouth. In fact, some studies have shown a 50 percent increase in metabolism for three hours after eating capsaicin. So it helps to keep a bottle of hot sauce on hand at mealtimes. You can use spices to add flavor to recipes instead of salty or fatty ingredients, which will also help kick your metabolism into a higher gear.
http://stanford.wellsphere.com/exercise-article/8-foods-to-boost-your-metabolism/538210

Robby Coker
02-28-2009, 11:03 PM
I'm about done with Total Metabolism Calculator 2.0. Pretty much all I have to do is update the Readme file.

I hope to release a beta version by later tomorrow.

I've made a slew of modifications, added various things, and did an overhaul on the user interface as well. The user interface is much different from the previous versions, looks much cooler, and should be easier to use.

The total metabolism output figures are now displayed up top rather than on the right side as on previous versions, and it stays up on top the whole time while scrolling down and entering in values.

The factors (which are now going to be called parameters) of Total Metabolism Calculator are now divided into two sections:
Standard Parameters
Extended Parameters

Standard Parameters consist of the following parameters:
Metabolic Speed Variation (now called Metabolic Speed Adjustment) - gives adjusted RMR (adds or takes away a % value to or from calculated RMR) when you put in either "f" fast or "s" slow).
Activity Factor -> calculates a base maintenance level by multiplying this by RMR
Macronutrient Ratios - these parameters are used to calculate your base thermogenic effect of food (TEF).

Extended Parameters consist of the other parameters such as dairy intake, water intake, Green Tea, hot/spicy foods, etc. These are the ones that ask you questions, tell you to enter a quantity, etc.

One thing, which I had mentioned in a post above, is variable TEF. I have implemented this as well. The way this works is that each individual thermogenic value of each macronutrient has its own function. The thermogenic value of a given macronutrient (protein, carbs, fat) is calculated based, first, on a person's body fat %. If no body fat % figure is entered, then it is calculated based on the person's BMI. So, from this, people with more body fat have lower base TEF's for a same given diet. As some studies have shown, overfat and obese people have decreased thermogenesis.

Besides these, there's quite a bit more that's been changed and added.

5-O
09-11-2011, 06:04 AM
very interesting. should be bumped.

3birds
04-07-2013, 05:59 PM
Interesting I'm guessing. I need to be on a computer. To actually use it?