Swedish researchers from the Department of Medicine at the University Hospital of Lund discovered that adding a cinnamon supplement to in a semisolid, carbohydrate-rich meal reduces after-meal blood sugar responses in healthy subjects. The cause of this reduction could at least partly be explained by delayed gastric emptying rate (GER). According to the scientists ?However, the reduction in the blood glucose concentrations, unexpectedly, was much more noticeable and pronounced in the present study than was the lowering of the GER. Therefore, it should be assumed that the change in GER itself could not be the only reason for the lower blood glucose response after the addition of cinnamon to the meal.?; they added that ?further investigation of the effect of cinnamon on the insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is needed.?
This new study published in the current issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition adds to the growing body of research evidence that water-extracted cinnamon supplements positively effect blood sugar balance, which is especially important considering the growing epidemic of diabetes type 2 and metabolic syndrome.
In clinical studies, cinnamon has been shown to reduce fasting serum glucose, triglyceride (TG) and total as well as LDL-cholesterol concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes when it is added to the diet for 40d in doses of 1, 3, or 6g.
3 The same study found that, after the consumption of cinnamon for 40d, the serum blood sugar and TG levels remained lower, even after a 20-d washout period, which indicated that it is not necessary to consume cinnamon every day.3
This new study shows that the ingestion of 6g cinnamon reduces postprandial blood glucose concentrations and GER in healthy subjects. However, cinnamon?s effect on the past-meal glucose readings was much more pronounced than could be explained by delayed GER as the rate of gastric emptying acts as a major factor in blood glucose homeostasis in normal subjects by controlling the delivery of carbohydrate to the small intestine. Hence, the theory that cinnamon may act as an insulin-mimetic in the human body can not be discounted.
In fact, cinnamon has been shown to improve insulin receptor function by activating insulin receptor PI 3-kinase and inhibiting tyrosine phosphates.4 Cinnamon has also been shown to stimulate insulin receptor activity by increasing the concentrations of the phosphorylated intracellular protein IRS-1 and increasing the binding to PI 3-kinase, which leads to enhanced cellular glucose uptake.5 Additionally, in-vivo research found that cinnamon prevents the development of insulin resistance in rats fed a high-fructose diet by enhancing the insulin signaling, possibly via the nitric oxide pathway in skeletal muscle.6
In conclusion, current research suggests that cinnamon is able to reduce serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol levels in people with type 2 diabetes and healthy folks as well. Because cinnamon would not contribute to caloric intake, those who have type 2 diabetes or those who have elevated glucose, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, or total cholesterol levels may benefit from the regular inclusion of cinnamon in their daily diet. In addition, cinnamon may be beneficial for the remainder of the population to prevent and control elevated glucose and blood lipid levels, while functioning as a potent antioxidant possibly preventing atherosclerosis, cancer and diabetes type 2.
Source: Joanna Hlebowicz, Gassan Darwiche, Ola Bj?rgell and Lars-Olof Alm?r. Effect of cinnamon on postprandial blood glucose, gastric emptying, and satiety in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr (June) 2007; Vol. 85, No. 6: p. 1552-1556,
Background: Previous studies of patients with type 2 diabetes showed that cinnamon lowers fasting serum glucose, triacylglycerol, and LDL- and total cholesterol concentrations. Objective: We aimed to study the effect of cinnamon on the rate of gastric emptying, the postprandial blood glucose response, and satiety in healthy subjects.
The gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured by using standardized real-time ultrasonography. Fourteen healthy subjects were assessed by using a crossover trial. The subjects were examined after an 8-h fast if they had normal fasting blood glucose concentrations. GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15?90 min after ingestion of 300 g rice pudding (GER1) or 300 g rice pudding and 6 g cinnamon (GER2).
Results: The median value of GER1 was 37%, and that of GER2 was 34.5%. The addition of cinnamon to the rice pudding significantly delayed gastric emptying and lowered the postprandial glucose response (P < 0.05 for both). The reduction in the postprandial blood glucose concentration was much more noticeable and pronounced than was the lowering of the GER. The effect of cinnamon on satiety was not significant. Conclusions: The intake of 6 g cinnamon with rice pudding reduces postprandial blood glucose and delays gastric emptying without affecting satiety. Inclusion of cinnamon in the diet lowers the postprandial glucose response, a change that is at least partially explained by a delayed GER.
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