There's way to many "booze or weed, which one affects exercise more?", and "is drinking 5 days a week going to hurt my gains?" threads out there, so just keep all of this stupid topic posted in this thread. It's just contributing to the pollution of this forum. Now I'll add in my $0.02
Do you know how alcohol affects exercise?
If you enjoy a "tall cool one" after a workout, you're hardly alone. Drinking alcohol is not only an accepted part of the American lifestyle (about 70 percent of adults drink regularly averaging 2.7 gallons of alcoholic beverages a year), it's also closely tied to sports and outdoor physical activity.
Alcohol ads target viewers of football, basketball, and other sporting events. Dozens of former athletes endorse different brands of beer. Television advertisements are filled with images of young, healthy people playing sports and then downing a few.
Do you know how alcohol affects exercise? Is beer a good post-game replacement fluid? Does the occasional drink cause you any harm?
We may like the taste of Chablis or the way a few beers make us feel, but alcohol is detrimental to many aspects of physical activity. Initially it may make us feel less inhibited, more stimulated and "ready to party".
The good feeling, though, is fleeting - alcohol actually works as a depressant.
Furthermore, it has no significant beneficial effect on any organ of the body. According to the American College of Sports Medicine, alcohol will not improve muscular work capacity and may impede athletic performance.
The intoxicating ingredient is ethanol, a chemical compound that originates from the fermentation of grains. From the moment it enters the body ethanol receives special treatment. It rapidly diffuses from the walls of the stomach into the circulatory system and then to the liver or brain. Since the liver can handle only a small amount of alcohol at any one time, the rest goes directly to the brain.
The effects of alcohol on the brain are felt quite rapidly especially if the stomach is empty; food may lessen the pace of absorption. Alcohol first affects the brain's frontal lobes, the reasoning centers, sedating the inhibitory nerves. Higher levels of alcohol then affect the centers of speech, vision, motor control and eventually consciousness.
What other effects does alcohol have on the body?
There are many other effects on the body. In the stomach, alcohol causes oversecretion of acid and histamine leading to inflammation (gastritis) and ulcer formation. It has a direct toxic effect on brain cells, causing a few to die each time alcohol is ingested.
Alcohol also causes inflammation of the liver cells, even in occasional users, which can be detected in blood tests that show an increase in release of enzymes from the liver. In some people, long-term drinking leads to cirrhosis, irreversible scarring of the liver.
Other serious consequences include alcoholism and drunk-driving accidents, and it is a major cofactor in date rape and unprotected sexual activity.
If you want to drink without experiencing the unpleasant effects of overconsumption, moderate your drinking or intersperse your drinks with nonalcoholic beverages to lessen dehydration.
Depending upon body size, it can take one to two hours to metabolize one drink. A 12-ounce beer; 4 ounces of wine and 1.5 ounces of hard liquor each contain about .5 ounce of alcohol, approximately the amount your body is capable of processing in one hour.
Decide on a limit and stick to it. Inability to stick to your limit may be a sign that you are not able to control your drinking. Make a commitment to drive and ride sober. If you are a member of a team, set team limits for alcohol consumption, such as no alcohol for 48 hours before competition.
Speak out if someone else's drinking is worrying you. If your life is affected by a personal or family drinking problem, seek help from Alcoholics Anonymous or a similar organization.
A Few Myths About Alcohol
1. Alcohol is a good source of calories.
False. Alcohol is a highly concentrated source of calories containing 7 calories per gram (compared to 4 cals/g for protein and carbohydrates and 9 cal/g for fat). These calories are utilized by the body mainly for heat production and are not converted to glycogen, the main fuel for muscle activity.
All of the calories in alcohol are "empty" calories; alcohol does not contain any appreciable amounts of vitamins or minerals, and it overloads the liver's metabolic pathways. The liver diverts calories into making fat, which is then stored in the liver before being carried away to permanent storage sites. Fat accumulates in the liver after a single night of heavy drinking.
Furthermore, alcohol is often mixed with high-calorie mixers and consumed along with snacks of high caloric density such as chips, dips and nuts. Frequent drinkers can add unwanted pounds easily. If you're drinking and dieting, its hard to stay within the calorie boundaries and still get proper nourishment.
2 Alcohol is a good source of B vitamins.
False. Alcoholic drinks contain only negligible amounts of vitamins. Eleven cans of beer will provide the daily allowance of B2 (riboflavin), which is better obtained from breads and cereals.
In fact, alcohol acts to displace vitamins from the body. First it causes intestinal cells to stop absorbing thiamin, folacin and B12. Liver cells lose their efficiency in activating vitamin D. Kidneys excrete an increased amount of magnesium, calcium, potassium and zinc, robbing your body of stores of these essential minerals.
3 Alcohol is a good fluid replacement.
False. Alcohol is a diuretic, a substance that causes greater loss of fluids (and minerals and electrolytes) than it contains. Alcohol decreases production of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), the brain hormone that regulates fluid balance.
This causes increased urination, water loss, dehydration and loss of essential minerals. Since you urinate more, drinking alcohol may make you think you are well hydrated. But it is a forced loss of fluid in greater amounts than you are drinking.
If you drink alcohol before or after exercise, be sure to also drink adequate amounts of a nonalcoholic, decaffeinated beverage to make up for the forced fluid loss.
4 A few drinks won't impair athletic performance.
False. The brain will not function as quickly nor the muscles as skillfully with alcohol on board. Many studies have shown that even a small amount of alcohol can impair psychomotor skills, reaction time, hand-eye coordination, visual tracking, arm steadiness, balance and alertness. The more you drink, the worse your performance will be.
Alcohol can accentuate exercise fatigue by increasing lactic acid production. It also dilates blood vessels and diverts circulation to the skin. In cold climates, this can impair thermoregulation and lead to increased risk of hypothermia. In hot climates, it can increase sweating and lead to further dehydration.
Consuming alcohol the night before an activity can hinder your performance by causing dehydration and loss of minerals and electrolytes. And a bad hangover can make even the simplest task seem monumental.
Results 1 to 30 of 31
Thread: The Official Retard Thread
10-22-2004, 07:49 PM #1
The Official Retard Thread
Last edited by hepennypacker52; 10-22-2004 at 07:57 PM.
10-22-2004, 07:50 PM #2
Alcohol - Exercise
The use of alcohol produces fatigue and diminished performance. Athletes should avoid alcohol. (NCAAD - Dept. of Health and Human Services)
Alcohol is a diuretic, leading to dehydration, which causes the body’s cooling down system to work improperly. Becoming flushed is the way your body compensates, sending blood (which contains oxygen) to the skin to help cool off. One of the symptoms of dehydration is fatigue. Because alcohol affects reason, judgment, and coordination, drinking alcohol and exercising makes a dangerous duo. Muscles cannot contract properly without certain valuable electrolytes, such as magnesium, calcium, and potassium - these are lost because of alcohol’s diuretic effect. (goaskalice.columbia.edu - April 2001)
No alcohol at least 6 hours before physical activity. (The Male Body:An Owner’s Manual, from the Editors of Men’s Health Books, 1996)
Casual drinking can put extra stress on the body, countering the claims that moderate alcohol consumption can be healthy. Researchers at Penn State University said that drinking small amounts of alcohol before work or exercise makes the body work harder to perform. “Practically speaking, after drinking, it takes more energy to do the same job,” said researcher Dr. Mary E. Nicholson. People with high blood pressure and cardiovascular problems may be particularly at risk. (“Healthy Drinking Debunked,” Join Together; HN3078@handsnet.org - May 2001)
Exercise and alcohol do not mix. Alcohol is a depressant and will slow physiological and psychological systems - which retard performance. The use of alcohol increases the risk of injury, can hinder accuracy, balance, hand-eye coordination, reaction time and general coordination.
(American College of Sportsmedicine, "Fitness," Parade magazine, Sept. 9, 1990)
Alcohol reduces the body's ability to convert food to energy and also reduces carbohydrate/blood sugar levels. Alcohol has a diuretic effect, and this added to the loss from sweat puts an individual at a greater risk of dehydration. These effects, together with the lactic acid build-up and dehydration combines to reduce aerobic performance. Alcohol the night before will take the edge off your fitness. Alcohol increases the swelling around soft tissue injuries (sprains, bruises and cuts - the most common sports injuries) so it takes longer to recover. Alcohol also masks pain which may delay treatment. If you've been injured, avoid alcohol.
Alcohol in your system makes you feel feverish, then you lose body heat too fast which can lead to hypothermia. The longer you play or train - or the colder the weather - the greater the risk. The relaxant properties of alcohol can flow on into your sport even well after you've finished drinking. Alcohol slows down the information processing ability of the brain. This in turn affects your reactions, co-ordination, accuracy and balance - all the things that are most important.
Even small amounts of alcohol rob the body of B-vitamins and minerals (such as zinc) that are essential for converting food to energy and in helping repair body tissue after injury.
(alcohol.org.nz - Dec. 2001)
Alcohol is a diuretic and one symptom of the resulting dehydration is fatigue - dehydration can also cause the body's cooling system to work improperly. Many people think alcohol is a stimulant because it makes them lively and uninhibited at first - - but it does this by sedating inhibitory nerves! Reasoning and judgment are impaired first, followed by effects on speech, vision, and large muscle control. This impairment of coordination and motor skills can make drinking alcohol and exercising a dangerous duo. You need energy to work out, but the calories from alcohol are unique in that they cannot be stored for energy in the muscles. Muscles cannot contract properly without certain valuable electrolytes, such as magnesium, calcium, and potassium, minerals which are lost along with fluids that are excreted in the urine because of the diuretic effect. Staying well-hydrated and fully alert when hiking, exercising, driving, operating other heavy machinery, etc., can only help you stay safer.
(goaskalice.columbia.edu - Dec. 2001)
Lactic acid: a chemical present in body tissue. However, too much lactic acid can lead to muscle fatigue and cramps. Alcohol use increases level of lactic acid and the chance of cramping up.
(alcohol.org.nz - Dec. 30, 2001)
10-22-2004, 07:52 PM #3
The combined effect of alcohol and physical exercise on serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and cortisol in males.
Heikkonen E, Ylikahri R, Roine R, Valimaki M, Harkonen M, Salaspuro M.
Research Unit of Alcohol Diseases, University of Helsinki, Finland.
The combined effect of alcohol and physical exercise on the serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and cortisol was studied in healthy male volunteers by performing an exhaustive ergometer exercise (1) followed by alcohol intoxication (induced by 1.5 g of alcohol/kg body weight), (2) during alcohol intoxication (induced by 0.8 g of alcohol/kg body weight), and (3) during hangover (13 hr after a dose of 1.5 g of alcohol/kg body weight). Physical stress immediately before alcohol administration prolonged the depressant effect of alcohol on testosterone secretion. This seemed to be mainly a consequence of direct inhibition at the testicular level, even though the role of luteinizing hormone as a contributory regulatory factor cannot be totally ruled out. Cortisol response to exercise was not modified by alcohol under any of the experimental conditions.
PMID: 8800389 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Alcohol and exercise don't mix
Article Tools: Pge 1 of 1
So you workout regularly and like to consider yourself fairly health conscious when it comes to weightlifting and maintaining muscle mass. But despite all those big muscles, you have a weakness: you have a tendency to have one or two or six drinks every now and then. Probably most students can relate, but before you have that drink, there are a few things you should know about how it will affect the muscle you work so hard to keep. Is the booze really worth it?
As some may have experienced first hand, alcohol can have some serious ill effects on the body and muscles. It doesn't matter whether you drink occasionally or frequently, the intake of alcohol has adverse effects no matter what. Aside from dehydrating your body, flushing out the very water your muscle needs to survive, alcohol also decreases protein synthesis, another integral part of muscle growth and maintenance. Protein synthesis is a process that is necessary for the building of muscle cells. If this is decreased, your muscle building process will obviously slow down; therefore the hour in the gym before your drink may have been a waste of time.
As stated earlier, dehydration is another downside to alcohol. It can lead to muscle catabolism, which occurs when your body uses muscle cells as energy. You drink the booze and get dehydrated. Your muscle cells, which contain the most water out of any other cell in the body, get drained so your body can re-hydrate itself. As a result, muscle cells can no longer be used by your body for anything but energy. Therefore, the next time you get on the treadmill to do some cardiovascular activity, instead of burning those fat stores like you had intended, your water depleted muscle cells get burned as energy instead. This process happens so fast that simply drinking water after the booze goes down, isn't good enough.
Excessive alcohol consumption known as binging can also cause levels of testosterone to decrease and can increase levels of cortisol, which is a hormone that can destroy muscle. So, if you have been wondering why your hard work in the weight room just hasn't been paying off, it could very well be because you have been losing your muscle to alcohol and therefore, not realizing your muscles' full potential.
Anthony Ellis, author and columnist for Muscle Media on 15 Muscle-Building Rules for Skinny Guys, confesses the following in one of his earlier issues. By cutting out his alcohol intake completely and maintaining his routine, he was able to gain and maintain 15 extra pounds of muscle mass that he hadn't been able to do prior to drinking alcohol.
So the question posed to you is: what is more worth to you; the money you pay for protein and a gym pass, the time and energy you put into getting those bulging biceps, or the booze that steals your money and your muscles which leaves you with a headache, a foggy memory, and who knows what the next morning.
Is the booze really worth the loss?
Cardiovascular consequences of marijuana use.
Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, Division of Research, Oakland, California 94612, USA.
This review describes what is known about effects of marijuana and cannabinoids in relation to human physiological and disease outcomes. The acute physiological effects of marijuana include a substantial dose-dependent increase in heart rate, generally associated with a mild increase in blood pressure. Orthostatic hypotension may occur acutely as a result of decreased vascular resistance. Smoking marijuana decreases exercise test duration in maximal exercise tests, increases the heart rate at submaximal levels of exercise. Tolerance develops to the acute effects of marijuana smoking and delta9-tetrahydrocannibol (THC) over several days to a few weeks. The cardiovascular responses that occur in response to THC are mediated by the autonomic nervous system, with recent findings also demonstrating that the human cannabinoid receptor system plays a role in regulating the cardiovascular response. Although several mechanisms exist by which marijuana use might contribute to the development of chronic cardiovascular conditions or acutely trigger cardiovascular events, there are few data regarding marijuana/THC use and cardiovascular disease outcomes. A large cohort study showed no association of marijuana use with cardiovascular disease hospitalization or mortality. However, acute effects of marijuana use include a decrease of the time until the onset of chest pain in patients with angina pectoris; one study has shown that marijuana may trigger the onset of myocardial infarction. Patients who have coronary heart disease or are at high risk for the development of CHD should be cautioned about the potential hazards of marijuana use as a precipitant for clinical events. Research directions might include more studies of cardiovascular disease outcomes and relationships of marijuana with cardiovascular risk factors, studies of metabolic and physiologic effects of chronic marijuana use that may affect cardiovascular disease risk, increased understanding of the role of the cannabinoid receptor system in cardiovascular regulation, and studies to determine if there is a therapeutic role for cannabinoids in blood pressure control or for neuroprotection after stroke.
PMID: 12412838 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Last edited by hepennypacker52; 10-22-2004 at 07:56 PM.
10-22-2004, 07:53 PM #4
Q. Can occasionally smoking marijuana hurt athletic performance?
A. "The athlete who uses marijuana, even on a casual basis, experiences very significant effects that have a direct bearing on athletic performance," says Roy T. Bergman, M.D.
Bergman, who has served on the medical staff for U.S. Olympic and Pan American Games teams, points to studies showing that marijuana decreases exercise capacity. It inhibits sweating and temperature control. The drug impairs coordination, steadiness and accuracy. It slows reaction time and interferes with judgment of speed, time and space relationships. Marijuana can also cause short and long-term memory loss and prolong learning time. In addition, regular use is strongly associated with apathy, loss of ambition, difficulty in concentrating, and a decline in academic performance.
These negative effects have not stopped all athletes from taking the drug, however. For example, 36% of athletes involved in NCAA competition had used marijuana during the previous year according to one study. And in a survey of elite women athletes, 17% of the respondents said they too had used the drug in the last year. Other studies have concluded that marijuana is second behind alcohol as the substance most commonly abused by athletes.
Marijuana users often argue that a smoke now and again, or perhaps a spiked chocolate chip cookie, is less harmful to performance than alcohol. However, both can be quite damaging to success in sport. And in one respect, marijuana may be more of a physical threat than alcohol: The psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, THC, enters the fat tissue where it can be gradually released into the blood to cause effects 24 to 36 hours after the drug was last used.
Marijuana: Medical Implications
JOHN R. HUBBARD, M.D., PH.D.,
SHARONE E. FRANCO, M.D., and
EMMANUEL S. ONAIVI, PH.D.
Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee A patient information handout on marijuana use, written by the authors of this article, is provided on page 2593.
Over 50 percent of people will use marijuana sometime in their life. While intoxication lasts two to three hours, the active ingredient in marijuana, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, can accumulate in fatty tissues, including the brain and testes. Adverse effects from marijuana use include decreased coordination, epithelial damage to the lungs, increased risk of infection, cardiovascular effects and cognitive deficits. Unexplained behavior changes, altered social relationships and poor performance at school or work can signify a drug problem. Treatment requires a combination of education, social support, drug monitoring and attention to comorbid medical and psychiatric conditions. (Am Fam Physician 1999;60:2583-93.)
The word "cannabis" is derived from Cannabis sativa, the name of the marijuana (hemp) plant. Cannabis has been valued for thousands of years throughout the world for making rope, thread and clothes, its psychoactive properties and medicinal purposes.1 The recent discovery of endogenous cannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors, the development of cannabinoid agonists and antagonists, and the continued debate over legalization for medicinal purposes has stimulated recent public interest in marijuana.2
Marijuana use peaked in the 1960s, but it is still the most widely used illicit drug in the United States. The 1992 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse reported that approximately 5 million Americans were using marijuana weekly.3 In addition, 2 to 3 percent of high school students used marijuana daily, and nearly 70 percent had used it in the past month.3 The average age at which a person starts using marijuana is 18 years.3,4 Prevalence rates of marijuana use differ according to age.3 According to the 1991 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (1979 through 1991), an average of 13 to 35 percent of young adults (18 to 25 years of age) used marijuana monthly, while only about 5 percent of persons between 26 and 34 years of age and approximately 2 percent of those 35 years of age or over used marijuana monthly.3
Many persons who use marijuana also use other drugs, particularly alcohol.5 A sequential pattern of drug abuse in adolescents has been described as the "gateway theory."6 According to this theory, drug use usually begins with legal substances, such as alcohol and cigarettes, and is then followed by marijuana, other illicit drugs and, finally, misuse of prescribed medication.6 This basic pattern is less common among persons who use drugs heavily.
In practical terms, this means that about one half of the people in the United States have used marijuana, many are currently using it and some will require treatment for marijuana abuse and dependence.
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol is metabolized through the cytochrome P450 system and excreted primarily in the feces.
Marijuana is made from the dried leaves and flowers of the hemp plant. The potency of marijuana depends on the method of preparation. Ganja is about three times more potent than marijuana, while hashish is five to eight times more potent. Although cannabinoids are usually smoked, they can also be eaten, drunk as tea or, rarely, injected intravenously. The delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of marijuana is currently higher than that of the marijuana used in past decades. Many adverse effects that were reported from the 1960s through the 1980s may be understated when compared with the effects of current street preparations.
THC, cannabidiol and cannabinol are the most abundant cannabinoids in marijuana. THC is the primary psychoactive component.4,7,8 A metabolite, 11-hydroxy-THC, is also psychoactive.4 THC is metabolized through the cytochrome P450 system. About one third of THC is eliminated through urination and two thirds through fecal excretion.7
Cannabinoids can be detected in the urine weeks to months after marijuana use.
Peak plasma levels of THC are normally achieved within 10 minutes of smoking marijuana. Intoxication lasts approximately two to three hours.4 Because of its high lipid solubility, THC accumulates in fatty tissues, leading to its long half-life.4,7,9 When cannabinoids from marijuana used weeks or months ago are detected in a urine drug screen, some people may be unpleasantly surprised, particularly if they are applying for employment, are injured on the job or are involved in a motor vehicle crash.
Mechanisms of Action
The proposed mechanisms of action of cannabinoids are shown in Table 1.1,4,7,10-14 Marijuana stimulates the dopamine pathway from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens, which is believed to be a reward system of the brain.
Proposed Mechanisms of Action of Cannabinoids
Binding to cannabinoid receptors (affects adenylate cyclase)
Increased fluidity of cell membranes
Change in dopamine in brain reward regions
Modulation of g-amino butyric acid system
Alteration of neurotransmitters
Alteration of prostaglandins
Inhibition of calcium uptake by synaptosomes
Information from references 1, 4, 7, and 10 through 14.
Two endogenous cannabinoid receptors, CB1 (found primarily, but not exclusively, in the brain) and CB2 (found only in peripheral tissues), have been identified.10-12,15 Cannabinoid receptors are most prevalent in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum, which may account for the primary actions of cannabinoids. Very few cannabinoid receptors are located in the brain stem, which may explain why marijuana used in high dosages does not suppress respiration and why it has a high therapeutic index.
Effects and Reasons for Use
Many people first use marijuana because of curiosity, peer pressure, or both. Use is often continued for the desired effects of euphoria, relaxation, sexual arousal, heightened sensations and socialization with other users.16 Easy access, expectation of few or no legal consequences, attempts at self-medication (for physical and emotional problems) and eventual dependence contribute to chronic use.
Many known physical and behavioral adverse effects accompany the use of marijuana, as shown in Tables 2 and 3, respectively.1,4,16,17,18-23 In one survey, approximately 40 to 60 percent of persons who use marijuana reported unpleasant side effects.17 Temporal variation occurs in the effects and adverse effects of marijuana. For example, the disruptive effect that marijuana has on coordination may last for more than 24 hours, which is far beyond the period of subjective intoxication.1 Thus, users may be at increased risk for adverse incidents (e.g., motor vehicle crashes, industrial accidents) for longer periods of time than they realize.
10-22-2004, 07:54 PM #5
Physical Adverse Effects of Marijuana
Decreased coordination Increased heart rate
Altered pulmonary status
Altered body temperature
Reduced muscle strength
Decreased cerebral blood flow
Increased food consumption
Information from references 1, 4, and 18 through 22.
Neuropsychiatric Adverse Effects of Marijuana
Anxiety and panic
Altered libido Possible suicidal ideation
Poor sense of time
Worsened short-term memory
Information from references 1, 4, 16, 17, 19, 22 and 23.
Many investigations using animals and some studies of humans suggest that reproductive abnormalities may occur with the use of marijuana (Table 4).1,4,7,13,22,24-26 These effects are less clear in humans. Maternal exposure to marijuana during pregnancy may reduce the size of the fetus and the birth weight.27 A 10-fold increase in the risk of nonlymphoblastic leukemia in children whose mothers used marijuana before or during gestation has been reported.27 Marijuana may also increase the risk of chromosomal damage (including breakage and translocation), but this damage seems to be confined to somatic cells.4,5,7,27
Some patients with pre-existing medical conditions who use marijuana may be at particular risk. For example, although THC acutely increases the respiratory rate and the diameter of bronchial airways, chronic use of marijuana results in epithelial damage to the trachea and major bronchi, and decreased diameter of the bronchial airways.4 Marijuana smoke does not contain nicotine but does have a significantly higher tar content than cigarettes, contains many carcinogens and, unlike most cigarettes, is smoked unfiltered.4,27
Marijuana users with pre-existing medical conditions such as AIDS are at increased risk of infection because of fungal and bacterial contaminants and epithelial damage from the smoke.
A serious adverse effect of marijuana that is often neglected is the risk of infection. For example, chronic use of marijuana may lead to impairment of pulmonary defenses against infection. Marijuana can be contaminated with microorganisms such as Aspergillus and Salmonella, as well as fecal matter. The risk of infection may be of particular concern in patients who have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.9
The adverse effects of marijuana are of particular concern in older patients and in those with coronary artery disease, hypertension and cerebrovascular disease. For example, marijuana can increase heart rate (a dose-dependent tachycardia), increases cardiac output by as much as 30 percent, alters blood pressure, increases myocardial demand, decreases myocardial oxygen and increases angina.4,7,12,18
Potential Adverse Effects of Marijuana on the Reproductive System
Reduced testicular size
Lower testosterone levels
Change in sperm morphology/motility Infertility
Reduced fertility in offspring
Information from references 1, 4, 7, 13, 22, and 24 through 26.
Long-term use of marijuana may lead to subtle cognitive deficits. In studies using animals, chronic exposure to marijuana changed the structure and function of the hippocampus in ways similar to the effects of the aging process.27 Acute exposure to marijuana leads to deficits in short-term memory, but long-term effects on cognition are not as well documented.
An "amotivational syndrome" caused by marijuana use is still controversial but of concern. High school students who use marijuana often spend less time on homework, have lower grades and more delinquency.28 Also, college women who use marijuana report significantly higher rates of motor vehicle crashes, smoking, use of alcohol and tranquilizers, use of sex as a coping mechanism, violent dreams, sleeplessness and psychiatric problems than do nonusers.29 "Cause and effect" is still the area of uncertainty, as drug abuse and conduct problems are intimately intertwined, and temporal relationships are often uncertain.
Marijuana use can lead to abuse, tolerance and dependence. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) does not contain a diagnosis of "cannabis withdrawal"; however, some studies suggest that withdrawal symptoms can develop (Table 5).1,22,25 If present, these symptoms are generally mild, presumably because of the long half-life of marijuana.1
10-22-2004, 07:56 PM #6
JOHN R. HUBBARD, M.D., PH.D.,
is an associate professor of psychiatry in the Division of Addiction Medicine at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tenn., and director of the Substance Abuse Treatment Program at the Nashville Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Dr. Hubbard received his medical degree and a Ph.D. in biochemistry from Virginia Commonwealth University Medical College of Virginia School of Medicine, Richmond. He is board-certified in psychiatry and addiction psychiatry.
SHARONE E. FRANCO, M.D.,
is currently a staff psychiatrist at Western Mental Health Institute in Bolivar, Tenn. Dr. Franco received her medical degree from the University of Cape Town, South Africa, and completed her residency at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, where she was chief resident.
EMMANUEL S. ONAIVI, PH.D.,
is assistant professor of pharmacology and psychiatry at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville. Dr. Onaivi received his Ph.D. in neuropharmacology at the University of Bradford, England.
Address correspondence to John R. Hubbard, M.D., Ph.D., Nashville Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Dept. of Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37212. Reprints are not available from the authors.
Losken A, Maviglia S, Friedman LS. Marijuana. In: Friedman LS, et al., eds. Source book of substance abuse and addiction. Baltimore, Md.: Williams & Wilkins, 1996:179-87.
Onaivi ES, Chaudhuri G, Abaci AS, Parker M, Manier DH, Martin PR, et al. Expression of cannabinoid receptors and their gene transcription in human blood cells. Prog Neuropsychopharmacology Biol Psychiatry [In press].
Cohen G, Fleming NF, Glatter KA, Haghigi DB, Halberstadt J, McHugh KB, et al. Epidemiology of substance use. In: Friedman LS, et al., eds. Source book of substance abuse and addiction. Baltimore, Md.: Williams & Wilkins, 1996:23-46.
Schuckit MA. Cannabinols. In: Drug and alcohol abuse: a clinical guide to diagnosis and treatment. 3d ed. New York: Plenum Medical, 1989:143-57.
Regier DA, Farmer ME, Rae DS, Locke BZ, Keith SJ, Judd LL, et al. Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse. Results from the Epidemiological Catchment Area (ECA) Study. JAMA 1990;264:2511-8.
Kandel DB, Yamaguchi K, Chen K. Stages of progression in drug involvement from adolescence to adulthood: further evidence for the gateway theory. J Stud Alcohol 1992;53:447-57.
Hollister LE. Cannabis--1988. Acta Psychiatr Scand (Suppl) 1988;345:108-18.
Onaivi ES, Green MR, Martin BR. Pharmacological characterization of cannabinoids in the elevated plus maze. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1990;253:1002-9.
Gurley RJ, Aranow R, Katz M. Medicinal marijuana: a comprehensive review. J Psychoactive Drugs 1998;30:137-47.
Onaivi ES, Chakrabarti A, Chaudhuri G. Cannabinoid receptor genes. Prog Neurobiol 1996;48:275-305.
Stella N, Schweitzer P, Piomelli D. A second endogenous cannabinoid that modulates long-term potentiation. Nature 1997;388:773-8.
Lu R, Hubbard JR, Martin BR, Kalimi MY. Roles of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups in the binding of CP-55,940 to rat brain cannabinoid receptor. Mol Cell Biochem 1993;121:119-26.
Wickelgren I. Marijuana: harder than thought? Science 1997;276:1967-8.
Tanda G, Pontieri FE, Di Chiara G. Cannabinoid and heroin activation of mesolimbic dopamine transmission by a common mu1opioid receptor mechanism. Science 1997;276:2048-50.
Musty RE, Reggio P, Consroe P. A review of recent advances in cannabinoid research and the 1994 International Symposium on Cannabis and the Cannabinoids. Life Sci 1995;56:1933-40.
Hubbard JR, Workman E, Marcus L, Felker B, Capell L, Smith J, et al. Differences in marijuana use across psychiatric diagnoses. Reasons they use, the side effects they experience. Poster B37, The Future of VA Mental Health Research. National Foundation for Brain Research, Washington, D.C., 1993.
Smart RG, Adlaf EM. Adverse reactions and seeking medical treatment among student cannabis users. Drug Alcohol Depend 1982;9:201-11.
Benowitz NL, Jones RT. Cardiovascular effects of prolonged delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol ingestion. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1975;18:287-97.
Gottschalk LA, Aronow WS, Prakash R. Effect of marijuana and placebo-marijuana smoking on psychological state and on psychophysiological cardiovascular functioning in anginal patients. Biol Psychiatry 1977:12:255-66.
Greenberg I, Kuehnle J, Mendelson JH, Bernstein JG. Effects of marijuana use on body weight and caloric intake in humans. Psychopharmacology [Ber] 1976;49:79-84.
Hollister LE. Hunger and appetite after single doses of marihuana, alcohol, and dextroamphetamine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1971;12:44-9.
Nahas G. Biomedical aspects of cannabis usage. Bull Narc 1977;29:13-27.
Weil AT. Adverse reactions to marihuana. Classification and suggested treatment. N Engl J Med 1970; 282:997-1000.
Nahas GG. Cannabis: toxicological properties and epidemiological aspects. Med J Aust 1986;145:82-7.
Lowinson JH, Ruiz P, Millman RB, eds. Marihuana. In: Substance abuse: a comprehensive textbook. 2d ed. Baltimore, Md.: Williams & Wilkins, 1992.
Murphy LL, Gher J, Steger RW, Bartke A. Effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol on copulatory behavior and neuroendocrine responses of male rats to female conspecifics. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1994;48:1011-7.
Hollister LE. Health aspects of cannabis: revisited. Intern J Neuropsychopharmacology 1998;1:71-80.
Kleinman PH, Wish ED, Deren S, Rainone G, Morehouse E. Daily marijuana use and problem behaviors among adolescents. Int J Addict 1988;23:87-107.
Rouse BA, Ewing JA. Marijuana and other drug use by women college students: associated risk taking and coping activities. Am J Psychiatry 1973;130:486-91.
Grinspoon L, Bakalar JB. Marijuana as medicine. A plea for reconsideration. JAMA 1995;273:1875-6.
Legido A. Intrauterine exposure to drugs [Spanish]. Rev Neurol 1997;25:691-702.
Witorsch RJ, Hubbard JR, Kalimi MY. Reproductive toxic effects of alcohol, tobacco and substances of abuse. In: Witorsch RJ, ed. Reproductive toxicology. 2d ed. New York: Raven, 1995:283-318.
How does marijuana use
affect school, work,
and social life?
Students who smoke marijuana get lower grades and are less likely to graduate from high school, compared with their nonsmoking peers.22,47,48,49
Workers who smoke marijuana are more likely than their co-workers to have problems on the job. Several studies have associated workers' marijuana smoking with increased absences, tardiness, accidents, workers' compensation claims, and job turnover. A study among municipal workers found that employees who smoked marijuana on or off the job reported more "withdrawal behaviors" - such as leaving work without permission, daydreaming, spending work time on personal matters, and shirking tasks - that adversely affect productivity and morale.50
Depression19, anxiety19,20, and personality disturbances5 are all associated with marijuana use. Research clearly demonstrates that marijuana use has the potential to cause problems in daily life or make a person's existing problems worse. Because marijuana compromises the ability to learn and remember information, the more a person uses marijuana the more he or she is likely to fall behind in accumulating intellectual, job, or social skills. In one study of cognition, adults were matched on the basis of their performance in the 4th grade on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills. They were evaluated on a number of cognitive measures including the 12th grade version of the Iowa Test. Those who were heavy marijuana smokers scored significantly lower on mathematical skills and verbal expression than non-smokers.9
Moreover, research has shown that marijuana's adverse impact on memory and learning can last for days or weeks after the acute effects of the drug wear off.9,35 For example, a study of 129 college students found that among heavy users of marijuana, those who smoked the drug at least 27 of the preceding 30 days, critical skills related to attention, memory, and learning were significantly impaired, even after they had not used the drug for at least 24 hours.35 The heavy marijuana users in the study had more trouble sustaining and shifting their attention and in registering, organizing, and using information than did the study participants who had used marijuana no more than 3 of the previous 30 days. As a result, someone who smokes marijuana once daily may be functioning at a reduced intellectual level all of the time. More recently, the same researchers showed that a group of long-term heavy marijuana users' ability to recall words from a list was impaired 1 week following cessation of marijuana use, but returned to normal by 4 weeks.52 An implication of this finding is that even after long-term heavy marijuana use, if an individual quits marijuana use, some cognitive abilities may be recovered.
Another study produced additional evidence that marijuana's effects on the brain can cause cumulative deterioration of critical life skills in the long run. Researchers gave students a battery of tests measuring problem-solving and emotional skills in 8th grade and again in 12th grade.53 The results showed that the students who were already drinking alcohol plus smoking marijuana in 8th grade started off slightly behind their peers but that the distance separating these two groups grew significantly by their senior year in high school. The analysis linked marijuana use, independently of alcohol use, to reduced capacity for self-reinforcement, a group of psychological skills that enable individuals to maintain confidence and persevere in the pursuit of goals.
10-22-2004, 08:02 PM #7
- Join Date: Mar 2004
- Location: New York, United States
- Age: 30
- Stats: 6'0", 206 lbs
- Posts: 12,063
- BodyPoints: 32655
- Rep Power: 4042
Best thread I've ever read in this section."Courage isn't an absense of fear but a means of dealing with it."-Nelson Mandela
"I don't call myself a living legend cause its a catchy phrase or cause it looks good on a T shirt, no, I say it cause its the truth, and I deserve it."- "Lion Heart" Chris Jericho
RIP Eddie Guerrero, a true champion
RIP George Carlin, my idol
10-22-2004, 08:18 PM #8
Yea i'm a college student and I did my fair share of partying this year. I had ok results in the gym even though my diet (other than the substances) was very good.
A few weeks ago I cut out all that stuff. Now my abs are defined and my overall physique is much much better. Not to mention my training is going better too. So yea, I figured alchohol and pot would have somewhat of a negative effect on my bodybuilding, but damn, now that I'm clean I really don't plan on partying as hard this year.-The phrase "Train smarter, not harder" is for pussies.
-Hey Beaman! I want you to take a good look at cause i'm gonna be the next muther****er to knock you out! (Any Given Sunday)
-6'3'' 220 lbs @ 4.74 sec. 40yd.
10-22-2004, 08:21 PM #9
- Join Date: Nov 2003
- Location: United States
- Age: 28
- Posts: 7,105
- BodyPoints: 19256
- Rep Power: 2148
sticky this!"because music is more important then how tight your ass is"-Maynard
"Foot in mouth and head up a$$hole what you talkin' bout?"- Tool
"The only bad "f-word" is FCC."
- Tom Morello of rage against the machine
Well now I've got some
A-dvice for you, little buddy.
Before you point the finger
You should know that
I'm the man,
And if I'm the man,
Then you're the man, and
He's the man as well so you can
Point that f**kin' finger up your a$$.
10-22-2004, 08:30 PM #10
- Join Date: Aug 2004
- Location: Long Island
- Age: 29
- Posts: 2,029
- BodyPoints: 1045
- Rep Power: 401
damn you and your googling powers and HTML abilities! sticky this!1/01/2005 185 lbs 22.5%
1/29/2005 181 lbs 20.5%
6/26/2005 153 lbs 14.7% crap
2/23/2008 ~202 lbs ~21% (crap again!)
10-22-2004, 08:30 PM #11
- Join Date: May 2004
- Location: las vegas
- Age: 28
- Stats: 6'0", 179 lbs
- Posts: 1,496
- BodyPoints: 205
- Rep Power: 151
good thread ...i hate when underaged people brag about drinkin and stuf.... STICKY THIS MODS pleaseNEW*b.w=200
"determination is the one and only key that will lead you to own and personal happyness"
10-22-2004, 08:35 PM #12
If I wanted to read a novel i'll goto the library. Congratulations dude, you learnt how to copy & paste from google. What flavour cookie do you want ?
10-22-2004, 08:39 PM #13
- Join Date: Nov 2001
- Location: Wollongong, NSW, Australia
- Stats: 6'5", 259 lbs
- Posts: 4,816
- BodyPoints: 6389
- Rep Power: 6163
The truth is out there....The science is out there!
10-22-2004, 09:06 PM #14
holy shiza thats alot of information, i read the first line though
10-22-2004, 09:54 PM #15Originally Posted by Blueberry
So whats this saying, don't drink, don't smoke, stick to meth???Age:18
Height: 187cm (6'2)
Weight: 99kg (220lbs)
Bodyfat: (@7 points): 78mm (about 12%)
Bench: 135kg (297 lbs)
Squat: 140kg x6 (308lbs)
Deadlift: 190kg (418lbs)
10-23-2004, 12:55 AM #16
10-23-2004, 01:26 AM #17
Most of these kids dont have the attention span of a lab rat. Cliff's it.
10-23-2004, 03:18 AM #18
Dont drink alcohol and dont do drugs.
10-23-2004, 05:08 AM #19
Red the alcohol one. Knew about 3/4 of the info. Didn't read the Marijuana, dosn't concern me as I will never use it. It took less than 10 minutes to read half of the post, you guys have attention problems and/or your trying to be funny by acting like dicks.
Sticky this bitch.
10-23-2004, 06:03 AM #20Originally Posted by Blueberry
I'd like a whole wheat oatmeal cookie actually .
^^I've actually made those and they tasted really good.
Last edited by hepennypacker52; 10-23-2004 at 06:05 AM.
10-23-2004, 06:30 AM #21
Speaking of bloody retards can we add those who think that creatine is a steroid and should be illegal. Thankyou.
10-23-2004, 06:50 AM #22Originally Posted by WheyIsolate
10-23-2004, 10:33 AM #23Originally Posted by hepennypacker52
10-23-2004, 10:39 AM #24
Originally Posted by EricTheRedA king may move a man, a father may claim a son. But remember that, even when those who move you be kings or men of power, your soul is in your keeping alone. When you stand before God you cannot say "but I was told by others to do thus" or that "virtue was not convenient at the time." This will not suffice. Remember that.
- Join Date: Oct 2004
- Age: 28
- Stats: 5'11", 220 lbs
- Posts: 4,085
- BodyPoints: 3525
- Rep Power: 721
10-23-2004, 10:42 AM #25Originally Posted by Blueberry*** BMB Founder and President ***
Jefferson's camp accused President Adams of having a "hideous hermaphroditical character, which has neither the force and firmness of a man, nor the gentleness and sensibility of a woman."
10-23-2004, 11:55 AM #26
hennypecker, i bet you have never gotten drunk or high once in your life. why? because ur an anal little nerd. i bet ur parents are rich as well.
whatever u wanna say about weed means nothing when i gained 11 pounds last month while tokin up everyday.
10-23-2004, 11:58 AM #27
Originally Posted by Iron_StonerA king may move a man, a father may claim a son. But remember that, even when those who move you be kings or men of power, your soul is in your keeping alone. When you stand before God you cannot say "but I was told by others to do thus" or that "virtue was not convenient at the time." This will not suffice. Remember that.
- Join Date: Oct 2004
- Age: 28
- Stats: 5'11", 220 lbs
- Posts: 4,085
- BodyPoints: 3525
- Rep Power: 721
10-23-2004, 12:18 PM #28
rep points for hennypacker i vote for sticky
10-23-2004, 01:20 PM #29
it's a good post, but i wouldn't want it to be stickied unless it were summerized...just because it's the exact same thing as would come up on a search engine. Anyone with 8 seconds of free time can find all this stuff on google. A sticky isn't really that much more convenient. If someone really knowledgable on the subject were to make their own post on it, i think it would make for a great sticky. PeaceREPS ARE ALWAYS GOOD
10-23-2004, 03:12 PM #30Originally Posted by K_muscle
honostly, if u have never smoked weed (or have but didnt get high cus u didnt smoke it right) u cant say shi!t cus u dont know sh!t.