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    A Guide to Ketosis

    I first heard about keto from this board 3 or 4 years ago, so this is where it all started for me. I've had fantastic results on keto, and I really believe in the validity of this diet - not only in terms of fat-loss, but also in terms of health-gain. There is a lot of understandable skepticism and tons of misconceptions about keto; I want to give back to the community and let newcomers know, however surprising it may be, that keto (or at least a diet low in grains/sugars and high in fats) is a very healthy diet with numerous benefits.

    This guide is very long so feel free to skim the contents and utilize the search function (Ctrl + F) by typing in the preceding letters of whatever section title is intriguing, and you will be instantly transported to that section; alternatively, you could be daring and read all of it, or lame and not read it at all. In any case, I hope that you will find this guide informative, entertaining, and useful.


    Contents


    I. Why You Should Care About Ketosis: The Benefits of a Ketogenic Diet

    1A. Ketosis Increases Neuronal Stabilization and Mental Focus

    1B. Ketosis Initiates Rapid Losses of Body-Fat and LDL Cholesterol

    1C. Ketosis Eliminates Various Ailments such as Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension

    1D. Ketosis Treats Several Diseases such as Alzheimer's and Various Cancers

    1E. Ketosis Promotes Cardiovascular Health

    1F. Ketosis Preserves Lean-Body Mass


    II. Understanding Ketosis; An Overview of Metabolism

    2A. Metabolism Defined

    2B. The Krebs Cycle

    2C. Glycolysis

    2D. Ketogenesis

    2E. Ketosis


    III. The Basics of the Ketogenic Diet

    3A. Entering Ketosis: The Hallowed Macro Ratio of Keto

    3B. Saturated vs. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    3C. The Wonders of Fiber

    3D. How to Enter Ketosis Quickly, Easily, and Reliably

    3E. How to Know You're Under Ketosis

    3F. The Gloom of Induction

    3G. Cyclic Glycogen Refeeds

    3H. Reentering Glycolysis Correctly

    3I. The Ultimate List of Ketogenic Foods


    IV. Useful Resources and Websites for the Keto-Minded

    4A. The Cook's Thesaurus

    4B. Restaurant Nutrition Facts

    4C. Keto Macro-Nutrient Calculator

    4D. Keto Goods Online

    4E. Keto Recipes Galore

    4F. Further Information


    V. Keto FAQ

    5A. What is the ketogenic diet in simple terms?

    5B. Is the ketogenic diet unhealthy?

    5C. Is the ketogenic diet unnatural?

    5D. How can you lose fat if you eat fat?

    5E. Is it best to bulk on keto or on a normal diet?

    5F. Are ketostix reliable?

    5G. Post any further questions you have in the thread

    ------------

    I've posted my entire guide in this thread, but I won't be able to edit my posts after a certain period of time. I will be updating my guide here:

    A Guide to Ketosis

    I originally planned to make this guide much more in depth with more topics, but I couldn't because I also have to contend with schoolwork right now, so check the link later on and I will probably have updated the guide.
    Last edited by shadowwalker021; 03-14-2011 at 10:42 AM.
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    I. Why You Should Care About Ketosis:
    The Benefits of a Ketogenic Diet


    1A. Ketosis Increases Neuronal Stabilization and Mental Focus

    Ketogenic diets have long been a known and established treatment for epilepsy. Ketosis somehow stabilizes the brain in a way that a normal glycolytic metabolism does not. It turns out based on Devivo’s “Chronic Ketosis and Cerebral Metabolism” that ketosis actually increases the ATP/ADP ratio in the brain; in other words, under a ketogenic metabolism there is actually more energy available for your brain to utilize, so the brain is able to function more efficiently, quickly, and effectively than it would otherwise be able to.



    Many people cite anecdotal experiences of "brain fog" as proof that ketosis actually hinders mental thinking, but this is false. This misconception arises from the fact that one must undergo a period of induction into ketosis (approximately 10-30 days) in which the body adjusts itself fully to a ketogenic metabolism. It is during this induction period that people experience the physical and mental sluggishness that is often associated with ketosis; unfortunately, these people often employ "glycogen refeeds" prematurely so that they suspend themselves in a perpetual state of ketogenic adaptation.
    1. Ketogenic Diets in the Treatment of Epilepsy: Short-Term Clinical Effects

    1B. Ketosis Initiates Rapid Losses of Body-Fat and LDL Cholesterol

    If your goal is to rid yourself of body-fat and LDL cholesterol, then it simply does not make a single bit of sense not to be on a ketogenic diet. Under a normal glycolytic metabolism, fat exists only as a backup or reserve fuel. Your body does not like to use it. When your body requires energy under a glycolytic metabolism, it first scans your blood-stream for glucose. If not much blood-glucose is found, then your body will command the liver to convert its stored glycogen into glucose. If not much glycogen is found, then your body will breakdown muscle and fat. Fat is the very last option. Under ketosis, fat is the very first option for energy ahead of anything else. LDL cholesterol is also readily reduced under ketosis.

    Originally Posted by Long term effects ...
    The body weight and body mass index of both groups [under ketogenic metabolisms] decreased significantly (P < 0.0001). The level of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and blood glucose level decreased significantly (P < 0.0001), whereas HDL cholesterol increased significantly (P < 0.0001) after the treatment in both groups.
    1. A Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet versus a Low-Fat Diet to Treat Obesity and Hyperlipidemia

    1C. Ketosis Eliminates Various Ailments such as Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension

    Ketosis has been shown to eliminate ailments such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension. This makes sense since insulin levels are scrupulously controlled under ketosis, and large portions of fat and LDL cholesterol are lost.

    Originally Posted by Effects of high ...
    In the high-carbohydrate group, hemoglobin A1c decreased (from 8.2% to 6.9%, P<.03), fasting plasma glucose decreased (from 8.8 to 7.2 mmol/L, P<.02), and insulin sensitivity increased (from 12.8 to 17.2 μmol/kg/min, P<.03). No significant changes in these parameters occurred in the high-protein group, instead systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased (−10.5±2.3 mm Hg, P=.003 and −18±9.0 mm Hg, P<.05, respectively).
    Originally Posted by A low carbohydrate ...
    The LCKD [Low Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet] improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes such that diabetes medications were discontinued or reduced in most participants. Because the LCKD can be very effective at lowering blood glucose, patients on diabetes medication who use this diet should be under close medical supervision or capable of adjusting their medication.
    1. Effects of high protein vs high carbohydrate intake on insulin sensitivity, body weight, hemoglobin A1, and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes melitus
    2. Comparison of a Low-Fat Diet to a Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Weight Loss, Body Composition, and Risk Factors for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Free-Living, Overweight Men and Women

    1D. Ketosis Treats Several Diseases such as Alzheimer's and Various Cancers

    Alzheimer's disease most likely arises, among other factors, from abnormally low levels of beta amyloid due to a dysfunction of the glycolysis pathway in certain areas of the brain. Ketosis has been shown to raise the levels of beta amyloid, and is seen as a possible treatment for Alzheimer's disease.

    Ketosis is also seen as a treatment to various cancers. Cancers are simply malignant tumors which possess a glycolytic rate that is up to 200 times that of surrounding non-cancerous cells - that is, cancer cells indirectly consume vast amounts of glucose. Without glucose, these cancer cells should not survive, and this does seem to be the case.
    1. Study of the ketogenic agent AC-1202 in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial
    2. Implementing A Ketogenic Diet Based on Medium-chain Triglyceride Oil in Pediatric Patients with Cancer
    3. Carbohydrate restriction in patients with advanced cancer: a protocol to assess safety and feasibility with an accompanying hypothesis

    1E Ketosis Promotes Cardiovascular Health

    Originally Posted by Joaquín Pérez-Guisado
    Contrary to past opinions, KDs also lead to improvements in cardiovascular health. When analyzing the nutritional habits of American society, carbohydrate consumption has risen, resulting in an increase in obesity and atherogenic markers such as triglycerides and VLD]. For Dasthi et al., the use of a KD with obese patients over a period of 12 weeks, in addition to being effective and safe for weight loss, also modified cardiovascular risk factors favorably in these patients. Specifically, there is a significant decrease in fasting and postprandial (in response to high-fat meals) blood triglyceride levels] and both blood levels are considered independently as risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, the phenomenon of carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia is long established. The serum triglyceride levels decreased more and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level increased more with the low-carbohydrate diet than with the low-fat diet: at 6 months and at 12 months]. Bearing in mind that the atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype is characterized by an increase in liver production of VLDL, low levels of HDL and a predominance of small LDL particles, it is surprising that low-fat and high-carbohydrate diets favor this atherogenic profile in patients who previously did not have this problem.

    Low-carbohydrate high-fat diets, on the other hand, improve all aspects of atherogenic dyslipidemia, decreasing fasting and postprandial triglyceride levels and increasing HDL and LDL particle size. These diets prompt an increase in larger LDL particles, a drop in smaller LDL particles and a decrease in the cholesterol/HDL ratio, which lowers glucose levels and favors weight loss. KDs based around proteins also have cardiovascular benefits, such as decreasing total cholesterol, LDL and triglyceride levels and increasing HDL levels. When comparing low-carbohydrate/high-protein diets and low-carbohydrate/high-fat diets, it seems that the difference between both diets in relation to blood lipid levels lies in the LDL, which are significantly lower in high-protein diets. Low-carbohydrate diets clearly have short-term cardiovascular benefits, but such benefits can also be observed over longer periods of time: 6 months, since improvements in blood pressure and blood levels of total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglycerides are noted in the 6 month period; 12 months, since the low-carbohydrate diet was associated with a greater improvement in certain risk factors for coronary heart disease (higher HDL and lower triglyceride levels).

    In relation to cardiovascular health, these diets have also proven to be effective for hypertension.

    Low-carbohydrate/high-protein diets are more effective than high-carbohydrate diets for decreasing blood pressure (both diastolic and systolic).
    Taken from Arguments in Favor of the Ketogenic Diet
    1. Fasting lipoprotein and postprandial triacylglycerol responses to a low-carbohydrate diet supplemented with n-3 fatty acids

    1F Ketosis Preserves Lean-Body Mass

    Under glycolysis, you must first deplete blood-glucose and glycogen stores in order to begin utilizing fats as energy, but the breakdown of fat must then compete with the breakdown of muscle-mass. The result of this competition or duel catabolism is about as much muscle-mass lost as fat. This can of course be largely avoided thru ketosis since under ketosis body-fat is the first and primary source of energy. Ketosis is muscle-sparing for the simple reason that proteins no longer compete with fatty acids for energy utilization. Under ketosis, protein is a secondary energy source and thus muscle is largely spared.



    Originally Posted by Comparison of energy ...
    Young et al. compared the effects of three isoenergetic (7.5 MJ/day), isoprotein (115g/day) diets containing varying carbohydrate contents (30, 60, and 104 g/day) on weight loss and body composition in obese men. After 9 weeks, weight loss was 16.2, 12.8, and 11.9 kg and fat accounted for 95%, 84%, and 75% of the weight lost, respectively.
    1. Effect of body composition and other parameters in obese young men of carbohydrate level of reduction diet
    Last edited by shadowwalker021; 03-12-2011 at 04:16 PM.
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    II. Understanding Ketosis;
    An Overview of Metabolism



    2A. Metabolism Defined

    Metabolism can be defined as those particular processes by which a creature derives energy. There are several different possible metabolic processes that humans are capable of, but perhaps the most prevalent and important of them all, and the one that plays a central role in understanding ketosis is the krebs cycle.

    2B. The Krebs Cycle

    The krebs cycle is the primary mechanism by which the human body extracts energy yielding molecules from food.

    This is the krebs cycle:



    All that we care about though is the initiation of the cycle:



    As you can see, all that is required for the initiation of the krebs cycle are the molecules acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate. Oxaloacetate is naturally regenerated from the cycle, but Acetyl-CoA must be fed into the cycle continuously. Both of these molecules can be produced from the molecule pyruvate as shown in the diagram. Pyruvate itself is produced thru glycolysis.

    2C. Glycolysis

    Glycolysis begins with a glucose molecule that is phosphorylated and reduced down to 2 molecules of pyruvate.



    Pyruvate is the molecule from which oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA originate if you remember from the previous section. This is what happens to all carbohydrates; they are all converted into a form that can be fed into this pathway for the production of pyruvate.

    So, is there another mechanism that is able to produce acetyl CoA and oxaloacetate without the breakdown of glucose and other sugars? Yes, of course: ketogenesis.

    2D. Ketogenesis

    Ketogenesis begins with the lipolysis of fat by the enzyme lipases in which fat is cleaved into 3 fatty acid chains and 1 glycerol molecule.



    These fatty acid chains then undergo a series of beta oxidations of which the final result is the production of acetyl CoA.



    This acetyl CoA molecule can then be fed into the krebs cycle for the eventual production of energy yielding ATP molecules.

    So what then of the production of oxaloacetate? Well remember that fat is made up of fatty acids as well as a glycerol molecule. The glycerol molecule can be converted into dihydroxyacetone phosphate in the liver which can be used instead of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate in the glycolysis pathway.



    The process of beta oxidation itself actually produces energy without the krebs cycle at all, so you have both the krebs cycle and beta oxidation now fueling your body.

    2E. Ketosis

    At this point NADH molecules are produced from both the krebs cycle and beta oxidation. After a certain period of time these NADH molecules begin to accumulate which prevents the continuation of the krebs cycle. Because of this, the acetyl CoA produced by beta oxidation are no longer fed into the krebs cycle and are instead routed to the liver where they are transformed into so called ketone bodies.



    These ketone bodies are sent into the bloodstream from the liver. It is when this occurs that one is said to be in ketosis. Acetoacetic acid and beta-hydroxybutyric acid are catabolized or broken down into simpler molecules with the byproduct of energy where needed, or they are reformed back into acetyl CoA which can then enter the krebs cycle. This last point of acetyl CoA reformation is especially important since fatty acids cannot pass the blood-brain barrier; only ketone bodies are able to pass this barrier.

    Acetone is an extremely volatile molecule (boiling point ~ 30 degrees celsius) and is thus readily released from the breath and urine. Acetone is said to have a "fruity" smell. It is acetone that you smell in your breath and urine when under ketosis, and it is acetone that interacts with the chemical(s) on ketostix to indicate ketosis.

    So, under a ketogenic metabolism, by simply urinating and breathing you are indirectly ridding yourself of fat.
    Last edited by shadowwalker021; 03-13-2011 at 01:09 PM.
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    III. The Basics of the Ketogenic Diet


    3A. Entering Ketosis: The Hallowed Macro Ratio of Keto

    Ketosis occurs when the body has no dietary source of glucose/sugar and its store of glycogen has been depleted. When this occurs, the body primarily begins cleaving fats into fatty acids and glycerol, and transforms the fatty acids into acetyl CoA molecules which are then in turn eventually transformed into ketone bodies in the liver. In other words, under a ketogenic metabolism, the body uses dietary and bodily fats as its primary energy source.

    It is possible to induce the initiation of this metabolism thru a careful diet; this diet must contain limited amounts of carbohydrates, sugars, and proteins, and should be comprised primarily of fats.

    The ideal macro-nutrient ketogenic ratio is this:

    60% of your calories should come from fats.

    35% of your calories should come from proteins.

    5% of your calories should come from fibrous carbohydrates.

    This is your new food pyramid:



    I know many people when first introduced to this "crazy and unhealthy fad diet" are deathly afraid to ingest too many fats. They usually inadvertently wind up on a high protein diet instead of a ketogenic diet. You must leave your fear of fats at the front-door because it is important not to over-exceed protein consumption as protein (and muscle) can easily be transformed into glucose via gluconeogenesis. It is important to eat mainly fats as your body cannot transform them into glucose - or at least it can't until you are under deep ketosis when it no longer matters.

    Use the keto macro-nutrient calculators which are linked in post 6 to find out how many calories of each macro-nutrient you are allotted.

    Use "the ultimate list of keto foods" contained in post 3 to find out exactly what foods you are allowed to eat.

    3B. Saturated vs. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    A ketogenic diet which utilizes a majority (60%) of polyunsaturated fatty acids versus saturated fatty acids has been proven superior. A diet high in polyunsaturated fatty acids induces a deeper ketosis in which levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate are significantly higher, and insulin sensitivity is increased. Since beta-hydroxybutyrate levels increase when a majority of dietary fats are polyunsaturated, it stands to reason that fat lipolysis and beta oxidation activity increase as well; so, in other words, you will rid yourself of fat more quickly and easily if a majority of your fat percentage comes from things like seeds, nuts, oils, and fatty fish.

    In order to enter ketosis more fully, the ideal ratio is 60/20/20 polyunsaturated/monounsaturated/saturated fatty acids. Be sure not to cut saturated fats out completely. They are good fats, and they fill many vital metabolic roles.

    You can determine which keto-friendly foods contain polyunsaturated fats by checking "the ultimate ketogenic food list" in post 3; all of the foods that contain mostly polyunsaturated fats will be colored green and purple.

    1. Differential Metabolic Effects of Saturated Versus Polyunsaturated Fats in Ketogenic Diets

    3C. The Wonders of Fiber

    Fiber cannot be digested by the human body, so it does not initiate the glycolytic pathway, and it has no effect whatsoever on insulin levels.

    High-fiber foods are safe to eat on keto, and in fact you should eat lots of them.

    Foods such as spinach, lettuce, broccoli, etc are great for a keto diet.

    3D. How to Enter Ketosis Quickly, Easily, and Reliably

    Here is a full-proof method to enter ketosis:

    Day 1:

    - Do not eat anything after 6 p.m.

    Day 2:

    - Wake up and perform HIIT or intense conditioning/weight training on an empty stomach

    - Begin a strict ketogenic diet with 0-2% of calories attributed to carbohydrates

    Day 3:

    - Wake up and perform HIIT or intense conditioning/weight training on an empty stomach

    - Begin a normal ketogenic diet with 5% of calories attributed to carbohydrates.

    If not already, you will soon be in ketosis in a short matter of time.

    3E. How to Know You're Under Ketosis

    When the body is under a ketogenic metabolism, you will exhale gaseous acetone and excrete acetone thru the urine.

    Acetone is said to have a "fruity" smell, so if your breath or urine smells somewhat like fruit then you're under ketosis. Many people also report a metallic taste in their mouths when under ketosis.

    There are also ketostix available at any pharmacy with which to test yourself for ketosis.

    3F. The Gloom of Induction

    If this is your first time ever on a ketogenic metabolism, or if you haven't been under ketosis for a long time, then you will experience a period of induction in which your body adjusts itself to a ketogenic metabolism. The length of this induction varies, but can last anywhere from 10 to 30 days.

    During this period, you will most likely experience headaches, brain fog, cramps, moodiness, and fatigue.

    This is normal and temporary. After this induction period, your body will be fully adjusted to a ketogenic metabolism and your energy will suddenly be tripled.

    It is important to stay under ketosis until your body is fully adjusted. Do not undergo any "carb-ups" until this induction is complete. You will know because all of your symptoms and sluggishness will disappear completely and you will suddenly feel fine.

    3G. Cyclic Glycogen Refeeds

    A glycogen refeed is simply the ingestion of carbohydrates for a set period of time with the intention of replenishing the glycogen muscle stores.

    If you are unsure whether or not you should undergo a glycogen refeed, then simply ask yourself what your primary fitness goal is.

    Is your primary goal to increase muscle-mass, to decrease body-fat, or to simply maintain your current body composition and health?

    If your answer was to decrease body-fat, then a glycogen refeed would only be counterproductive to your goals.

    If your answer was simply to maintain your body composition and health, then either choice is perfectly acceptable; i would personally opt for no refeeds as that is simpler and easier.

    If your answer was to increase muscle-mass though, then glycogen refeeds would benefit you greatly. Here is a great article on the matter written by lyle Mcdonald himself:
    Training on the Cyclical Ketogenic Diet

    Chronic ketogenesis, or the breakdown of fats begin primarily when blood-glucose and glycogen stores are low, and an induction into ketosis begins shortly after that in which acetyl CoA begins to catabolize into ketone bodies. During this induction or adaptation period which can last anywhere from 10-30 days, several major metabolic fluctuations take place. The first and most noticeable change is a sudden and extreme fatigue which is due of course to the total depletion of muscle glycogen stores. The second change that someone undergoing an induction into ketosis might notice is a change in mood and appetite; the mood and appetite regulating hormone Leptin undergoes a sharp decrease in activity during this adaptation period. The depletion of glycogen and decrease of Leptin activity both heavily contribute to the irritability, sluggishness, weakness, moodiness, and hunger that is often experienced during ketogenic adaptation.

    How glycogen refeeds work is that after a set period of time, people spend 1-2 days consuming carbohydrates such as oats and bananas in order to refill their glycogen stores and reactivate leptin activity. Most of the sugars that you ingest during this time will be converted into glycogen since the stores are completely empty. Once this is done, you will regain your strength, mood, and perhaps your sanity.

    Here is the Problem I have with this: if your goal is to rid yourself of body-fat, then setting up a wall of glycogen that you must knock down every week before you can once again begin utilizing fats as energy seems to be a bit... counterproductive. Ketosis is hugely muscle-sparing after-all as shown in section 1E, so entering a period of short-lived glycolysis just may allow gluconeogenesis in which muscle-mass is converted to glucose which would not occur on a significant scale under a fully-adapted ketogenic metabolism; not only this, but the inevitable insulin spikes from the sudden dumping of sugars into the blood-stream will surely recapture the free fatty acids that are roaming throughout the blood-stream back into adipose tissue.

    If your worry is about the leptin levels, then you must remember that ketosis requires a period of induction until the body is adapted to a ketogenic metabolism. Once the body is fully adjusted to a ketogenic metabolism, all of the symptoms felt during induction such as moodiness suddenly disappear. This suggests that leptin levels readjust once the body has fully adjusted.

    3H. Reentering Glycolysis Correctly

    This is simple. If you would like to reenter a normal glycolytic metabolism then slowly begin incorporating more and more carbohydrates into your diet. As long as you do not over-exceed your B.M.R. then you should not have any fat gain whatsoever (though you may gain a bit of water-weight).

    Slow and steady wins the race.
    Last edited by shadowwalker021; 03-12-2011 at 10:03 PM.
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    3I. The Ultimate List of Keto Foods

    Green = The Absolute Best: No/Low Sugars, High Polyunsaturated Fats
    Blue = Very Good: No/Low Sugars, High Saturated Fats
    Orange = Good: No/Low Sugars, Low-Moderate Fats
    Purple = Acceptable: Moderate Sugars/Glycemic, High Polyunsaturated Fats
    Grey = Barely Acceptable: Moderate Sugars/Glycemic, High Saturated Fats
    Red = Unacceptable (use sparingly): Moderate Sugars/Glycemic, Low-Moderate Fats

    (the foods are linked to nutritional data)

    CheesesDairyDressings
    Fats & OilsFishFlours/Meals/Powders
    FowlFruits, low sugar/glycemic
    Fruits, moderate sugar/glycemic
    MeatsNuts/LegumesSeedsShell FishVegetables, low sugar/glycemic
    Vegetables, moderate sugar/glycemic
    Last edited by shadowwalker021; 03-12-2011 at 06:40 PM.
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    IV. Useful Resources and Websites
    for the Keto-Minded




    4A. The Cook's Thesaurus

    http://www.foodsubs.com/
    Enter in any specific food or food type and this website will give you back "synonyms" or substitutes of that food/food type. This might be very helpful when devising your own recipes.


    4B. Restaurant Nutrition Facts

    http://www.dietfacts.com/fastfood.asp
    Nutrition data on all major restaurants and fast-food chains.


    4C. Keto Macro-nutrient Calculator

    http://www.phlaunt.com/lowcarb/DietMakeupCalc.php
    Easily figure your B.M.R., daily caloric allotment, and calorie breakdown in terms of the ketogenic diet.

    Alternatively, you can use Man2kx's calculator download which can be found at CKD Calculator for Dummies, by Man2kx


    4D. Keto Goods Online

    http://www.allbulkfoods.com
    http://www.bulkfoods.com/
    http://www.nuttyguys.com/
    These sites are great for buying nuts, seeds, flours, and oils in bulk.

    http://www6.*********.com/
    This is probably the best site for any type of keto snack or food. It has loads of keto-friendly pasta, breads, chips, cookies, flours, etc etc.

    Oh, it looks like this site is a competitor to bodybuilding.com heh. Don't worry Ryan Deluca - everyone here undoubtedly purchases their supplements from you as you have the best prices and delivery around. We just want this site for keto-friendly foods.

    The site is:
    www6. n e t r i t i o n.com

    http://www.missbobbies.com/
    I haven't actually bought anything from this site so I can't vouch for the validity of it, but it has a nice database of various keto foods and companies.

    http://julianbakery.com/
    Pepperidge Farm's Carb Style Bread
    Great sites for keto-friendly bread.

    www.dreamfieldsfoods.com/
    Tasty keto-friendly pasta.

    http://www.tovaindustries.com/carbalose/page1.html
    http://www.carbsmart.com/
    http://www.penzeys.com/
    http://www.sweetzfree.com/
    These sites are great for keto-friendly sweets, sugars, syrups, powders, and baking goods.

    4E. Recipes Galore

    http://www.genaw.com/lowcarb/recipes.html
    One of the best keto recipe sites out there. It is very organized and she rates each recipe honestly.

    http://www.lowcarbcafe.com/
    Loads of recipes.

    Dyan's Low Carb Recipes
    Very good organization and recipes.

    http://lowcarbeating.com/low-carb-co...-carb-recipes/
    Keto recipes.


    4F. Further Information

    http://www.controlcarb.com/
    Great information.

    http://www.sugarfreesheila.com/index.html
    Great site with good information. Her printout grocery list is great.

    http://www.fathead-movie.com/
    http://www.hulu.com/fat-head
    This is a documentary about the ketogenic diet and fats. I haven't watched it, but I've heard good things.

    http://www.whatislife.com/reader2/Me...attyacids.html
    Goes into greater detail than I did about fat metabolism.

    Arguments in Favor of Ketogenic Diet
    Awesome article on ketosis.
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    Keto FAQ



    5A. What is the ketogenic diet in simple terms?

    A ketogenic diet can be thought of as training your body to only use fats as energy. When your body is trained only to use fats, then when there is no dietary fat floating in your blood-stream your body will take body-fat and use that as energy.

    5B. Is the ketogenic diet unhealthy?

    No. The ketogenic diet is actually so extraordinarily conducive to real human health that it quickly and readily reverses the diseases and malformities that a diet high in grains/sugars and low in fats will inevitably bring about. The idea that fat is bad for you is a complete and utter myth that never had any scientific backing whatsoever, and it is frankly a laughable notion considering how prevalent and important fats and cholesterol are in our bodies. Most vital hormones and steroids stem from cholesterol. Every single one of your cells are covered with and contain lipid membranes that are incredibly important to the functionality of the cells. Do not fear for your health when entering a ketogenic diet, because not only will you quickly rid yourself of body-fat, but you will experience numerous health benefits.

    5C. Is the ketogenic diet unnatural?

    No. The ketogenic diet is far more natural for human beings than a diet high in grains and refined sugars. The current diet based on grains and sugars is completely foreign to the human body, and is responsible for most of the diseases and ailments that we face today (diabetes, heart disease, depression, ADD, obesity, alzheimer's, cancers, etc etc etc).

    Originally Posted by Joaquín Pérez-Guisado
    Humanity has existed as a genus for about 2 million years, and our prehuman hominid ancestors, the australopithecines, appeared at least 4 million years ago. This phase of evolutionary history made definitive contributions to our current genetic composition, partly in response to dietary influences at that time. The development of agriculture 10000 years ago has apparently had a minimal influence on our genes and markedly altered human nutritional patterns. In the hunting society of our ancestors protein contributed twice to nearly five times the proportion of total calories that it does for nowadays Americans.

    Since then, the human diet has changed drastically: protein intake has been reduced to 10-15%; glucid intake has increased to 45-60% through eating more grain and starch products instead of vegetables and fruits available according to the seasonal conditions; polyunsaturated fat has been reduced and saturated fat has increased (lower polyunsaturated-to-saturated fat radio). So we can affirm that healthier fats like monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats (MUFA and PUFA) have been replaced by more pernicious fat like saturated and, above all, the artificial trans fats. Furthermore, carbohydrates consumed nowadays tend to have a higher glycemic index and glycemic load since they are based on grains, starch and refined sugars instead of vegetables and fruits. In such a short evolutionary period of time, human beings have been unable to adapt to this abrupt change in eating habits, and this has been a significant source of stress for our insulin metabolism.

    The fact that the nutritional change from a hunter-gatherer diet to a carbohydrate-based diet has affected populations negatively has been revealed by archaeological findings in ancient Egyptian mummies, since tooth decay, cardiovascular disease and obesity were very frequent in those times. More recently, this problem has also been reflected historically by the change in eating habits of Inuit peoples in Alaska. Traditionally, their diet contained 3-5% carbohydrates (since it was based on fish, marine mammals, moose and caribou), obesity was virtually nonexistent and type II diabetes was rare. Since 1961, a growing tendency in type II diabetes and obesity problems has been observed due to a progressive substitution of the traditional protein and fat-based diet by a diet with higher carbohydrate content. This increase has been so dramatic that in 1978, carbohydrates represented 50% of the total calorie contribution in their diet. Another historical fact worth considering when analyzing the nutritional habits of American society is their increased consumption of carbohydrates, either through eating more food in general or by replacing fats with carbohydrates. This leads to an increase in obesity and atherogenic markers such as triglycerides and VLDL].

    Most hunter–gatherers, for example, are not obese when they live their traditional lifestyle based on a low carbohydrate diet. Many hunter-gatherers consumed a predominantly plant-based diet, which was supplemented with meat when available, and others such as the Inuits consumed a high fat-protein diet. When such people are exposed to high, refined carbohydrate intake, however, they develop truncal obesity and a much higher risk of diabetes, up to 50% in some populations. This high waist-hip ratio and carbohydrate intolerance is shared by all hunter–gatherer populations throughout the world: Canadian Inuits, Native Americans, Mexican Indians, Pima Indians, South American Indians, Middle-Eastern Nomads, African Pygmies, Australian Aborigines, Maoris, South Sea Islanders, etc.

    Nevertheless, many factors are responsible for the health and metabolic disturbances currently experienced by modern hunter–gatherers like the Inuits. It is important to remember that millions of people worldwide from different countries have predominantly carbohydrate-based diets and the prevalence of obesity is very low in these countries. Hence other risk factor factors, such as sedentarism and high calorie intake, are clearly relevant in addition to the macronutrient composition of the diet.

    Thus, all these data might suggest that it could be wrong to consider carbohydrates as the basis of the human diet.
    Taken from Arguments in Favor of the Ketogenic Diet

    5D. How can you lose fat if you eat fat?

    Eating fat is actually the most effective way of losing body-fat. Basically you are training your body to only use fat as energy, so when there are no dietary fats floating around in your blood-stream your body will take out some of your body-fat stores and convert that into energy.

    5E. Is it best to bulk on keto or on a normal diet?

    I can personally not come up with a reason why anyone would want to revert back to a glycolytic metabolism in order to gain muscle besides that it might be easier to consume a calorie surplus since fats are very filling. If you like the idea of ridding yourself of excess fat while you gain muscle then probably keto is right for you. Ketosis has also been shown to increase testosterone levels which would of course be conducive to a muscle-building regimine. The ultimate decision is up to you though, because as far as I know a glycolytic metabolism is actually perfectly capable of building muscle-mass just as well as a ketogenic metabolism does, so it doesn't really matter.

    5F. Are ketostix reliable?

    Ketostix detect the presence of acetone in the urine. Acetone is a volatile compound with a very low boiling point, so it is readily exhaled from the body as gas and thru the urinary tract. It is possible to be in a low level of ketosis in which acetoacetate primarily synthesizes beta-hydroxybutyrate, and does not fall to forming acetone. Alternatively, it is possible to use up all of the blood-ketones thru extreme exercise so that there is no excess acetone to escape into the urinary tract.

    Ketostix are a very good detector of ketosis, but just because your urinalysis doesn't register the presence of acetone doesn't necessarily mean that you aren't actually in ketosis.

    5G. Please leave any further questions in the thread itself. Thanks for reading.
    Last edited by shadowwalker021; 03-12-2011 at 04:19 PM.
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    Awesome man, I read through about half of it, will be back for more!

    I had been looking for studies that showed keto diets improved bloodwork, thanks a ton!

    Edit: Finished. That last link is an awesome read btw, 180+ reference research review on all things keto.
    Last edited by Inthearena; 03-12-2011 at 05:48 PM.
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    great thread
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    Originally Posted by Inthearena View Post
    Awesome man, I read through about half of it, will be back for more!

    I had been looking for studies that showed keto diets improved bloodwork, thanks a ton!

    Edit: Finished. That last link is an awesome read btw, 180+ reference research review on all things keto.
    Originally Posted by Joeshmocoolstuff View Post
    great thread
    it took me a while to write this up (i even drew those cartoons/pyramid) so i appreciate the feedback/thanks. i just hope it helps
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    read it all
    repped
    awesome
    ISSA certified personal trainer
    ISSA certified specialist in sports nutrition
    Dietetics undergraduate
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    Yes.....I'm that wrestler MASSter's Avatar
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    Damn son! That took some time. I just skimmed through but it looks like lots of good info.
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    Originally Posted by shadowwalker021 View Post

    Keto FAQ


    5E. Is it best to bulk on keto or on a normal diet?

    I can personally not come up with a reason why anyone would want to revert back to a glycolytic metabolism in order to gain muscle besides that it might be easier to consume a calorie surplus since fats are very filling. If you like the idea of ridding yourself of excess fat while you gain muscle then probably keto is right for you. Ketosis has also been shown to increase testosterone levels which would of course be conducive to a muscle-building regimine. The ultimate decision is up to you though, because as far as I know a glycolytic metabolism is actually perfectly capable of building muscle-mass just as well as a ketogenic metabolism does, so it doesn't really matter.
    [/u]
    Great post. Enough so to lure me out of leeching and into the discussion. I have had good experiences with ketosis (cutting, focus and energy). How would a person go about gaining muscle in SKD. I'm aware that testosterone and growth hormone are increased, yet I am under the impression that muscle gain is out of the picture in the absence of glucose and subsequent insulin.

    I hear that insulin release can be caused by nutrients other than carbohydrates but I am unaware of the details. I also hear that leucine, when 4-6 grams are consumed every 4 to 6 hours, can induce protein synthesis even in the absence of glucose, albeit minimal protein synthesis. Are you knowledgeable on either of these points?

    Lastly, peanut oil is not on your list of oils. Is that to say that peanut oil is not recommended at all?
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    Very nice thread!!!! read the whole thing.. I am impressed.. That took some time..

    Thanks
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    Originally Posted by Survive View Post
    Great post. Enough so to lure me out of leeching and into the discussion. I have had good experiences with ketosis (cutting, focus and energy). How would a person go about gaining muscle in SKD. I'm aware that testosterone and growth hormone are increased, yet I am under the impression that muscle gain is out of the picture in the absence of glucose and subsequent insulin.

    I hear that insulin release can be caused by nutrients other than carbohydrates but I am unaware of the details. I also hear that leucine, when 4-6 grams are consumed every 4 to 6 hours, can induce protein synthesis even in the absence of glucose, albeit minimal protein synthesis. Are you knowledgeable on either of these points?

    Lastly, peanut oil is not on your list of oils. Is that to say that peanut oil is not recommended at all?
    I would seem to believe that if you're on a keto diet and have a caloric surplus you're going to gain weight.. Only in this case I would say that its gonna be harder to gain as much fat as you would on a high carb bulk.. Just my two cents
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    Originally Posted by Survive View Post
    Great post. Enough so to lure me out of leeching and into the discussion. I have had good experiences with ketosis (cutting, focus and energy). How would a person go about gaining muscle in SKD. I'm aware that testosterone and growth hormone are increased, yet I am under the impression that muscle gain is out of the picture in the absence of glucose and subsequent insulin.

    I hear that insulin release can be caused by nutrients other than carbohydrates but I am unaware of the details. I also hear that leucine, when 4-6 grams are consumed every 4 to 6 hours, can induce protein synthesis even in the absence of glucose, albeit minimal protein synthesis. Are you knowledgeable on either of these points?
    ah, that is true. insulin is handy when dealing with muscle-growth. you are also correct when you say that there are different ways to spike insulin without the ingestion of sugars; for example, coconut oil spikes insulin levels, so perhaps drinking a post workout shake of coconut oil and protein powder after weight training is your best bet on a ketogenic diet (it would also be pretty tasty).

    also, after researching a bit, i see that a cyclical ketogenic diet is actually perfect for those who would simultaneously like to build muscle and be in ketosis. i still think that if your main goal is to lose body-fat, then a ckd is pointless, but it looks like it's pretty great for when you'd like to build muscle-mass.

    sorry for the confusion. i actually haven't yet researched ketosis and muscle-building because so far i've only been under ketosis while losing fat so that's all i've been interested in.

    so, to summarize: you can build muscle under ketosis. probably a CKD would be best with a coconut oil protein shake after weight training. i know that there are also supplements out there that induce insulin spikes, though i currently can't remember their names.

    anyone else who is more knowledgeable about this subject please feel free to jump in.

    Originally Posted by Survive View Post
    Lastly, peanut oil is not on your list of oils. Is that to say that peanut oil is not recommended at all?
    no, peanut oil is fine (assuming it's not partially hydrogenated peanut oil... yuck)

    there is actually a 12,000 character limit per post on this site, and i think in that post i am at like 11,998 characters, so i literally can't fit anything else in! it was tough getting it to fit, but yeah peanut oil is fine.

    on another note: i see that you were able to find a pretty good user name for such a newcomer to the forums. awesome job haha. thanks for the great questions and welcome.
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    Thanks for the input. Coconut oil and MCT oil seem to be the missing links to muscle gains as far as a standard ketogenic diet goes. While the CKD seems optimal for gains, I'd settle for the slower, harder gains of a Medium-Chain-Triglycerides supplimented SKD.

    Being a muay thai/ninpo fighter, I have a need to keep my speed, endurance and flexibility relatively high while keeping the weight low and stable. Adding solid, quality strength is my current challenge. My newly found awareness of MCT brings me one step closer.

    Thanks again for the post.
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    Excellent post!
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    MAKE THIS A STICKY!!! This is so well put together, better than a research paper I wrote on ketosis a couple years ago. Great job! EVERYBODY REP THIS DUDE!!!
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    Sors Inanis shadowwalker021's Avatar
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    Originally Posted by devildogJMS View Post
    MAKE THIS A STICKY!!! This is so well put together, better than a research paper I wrote on ketosis a couple years ago. Great job! EVERYBODY REP THIS DUDE!!!
    thanks! i really appreciate that. i definitely wouldn't mind a sticky obviously.

    let me know if there are any errors or anything vital i should add to the guide before it doesn't let me edit it anymore.
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  21. #21
    Watch the triangle brah JAGERBOY's Avatar
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    Originally Posted by Survive View Post
    Thanks for the input. Coconut oil and MCT oil seem to be the missing links to muscle gains as far as a standard ketogenic diet goes. While the CKD seems optimal for gains, I'd settle for the slower, harder gains of a Medium-Chain-Triglycerides supplimented SKD.

    Being a muay thai/ninpo fighter, I have a need to keep my speed, endurance and flexibility relatively high while keeping the weight low and stable. Adding solid, quality strength is my current challenge. My newly found awareness of MCT brings me one step closer.

    Thanks again for the post.
    Hmmm, I also compete and train in Muay Thai/MMA, and you think that an SKD approach is better? Most of what I've read, mainly from Lyle would indicate the CKD approach would be better.
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    Nice post

    Nice post! I am in my 2nd week 10th day on this diet and i am quite liking it so far. Only downside i am having is i feel deflated and soft, my lifts are still strong and even my energy is up..

    So far so good.

    Nice read thanks.. rep.
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  23. #23
    Registered User Boochie21's Avatar
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    Great stuff !! A++ and reps.

    Question - So, my goal is fat loss. 100000%. I read that...if your goal is fatloss, then refeeds are counter productive to your goals. Understood. However, I have gone weeks without carbs ups and its getting to the point where I am starting to feel sluggish, moody, extreme hunger, and workouts are lagging a bit.

    Can you have a "cheat meal", one simple meal of carbs ?
    Or
    A small 5 hr window refeed ?
    or
    Is there a way to overcome the "slump" without refeeds ?
    The scientific and practical amount of carbohydrate needed in the diet is ZERO -- NONE. Dietary carbohydrates are not a requirement in any body function. In fact it appears that the lower the carbohydrate level in the diet the better the long-term health. Age-related degenerative diseases are caused by high levels of carbohydrates in the diet. One can be on a very low or zero-carbohydrate diet indefinitely as has been shown by the study of many primitive societies.
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  24. #24
    Sors Inanis shadowwalker021's Avatar
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    Originally Posted by Boochie21 View Post
    Great stuff !! A++ and reps.

    Question - So, my goal is fat loss. 100000%. I read that...if your goal is fatloss, then refeeds are counter productive to your goals. Understood. However, I have gone weeks without carbs ups and its getting to the point where I am starting to feel sluggish, moody, extreme hunger, and workouts are lagging a bit.

    Can you have a "cheat meal", one simple meal of carbs ?
    Or
    A small 5 hr window refeed ?
    or
    Is there a way to overcome the "slump" without refeeds ?
    my whole problem with refeeds is that they often prevent people from becoming fat-adapted since people refeed within 5 days of being on a keto diet. you should stay in ketosis until you are fat-adapted, and then you can refeed if you need to.

    so how do you know if you need to refeed? well when you push your heart-rate to a high level thru exercise, your body likes to use primarily glycogen. under ketosis, your glycogen stores are empty so you will not be able to perform as well as you should be able to, and also your body might start breaking down muscle-mass to convert to glucose during this period.

    so:

    if you are performing intense exercise such as heavy weight-training or HIIT then it'd probably be a good idea to refeed at least once every 2 weeks if not weekly.

    if you are performing hardcore exercises such as those performed by an athlete or a bodybuilder, then most definitely a refeed every week (once you have become fat-adapted) will be necessary.

    if you are just performing light-moderate weight-training, LISS, or endurance cardio, then probably a small refeed once every month would be more than sufficient for you.
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  25. #25
    Registered User Boochie21's Avatar
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    if you are performing intense exercise such as heavy weight-training or HIIT then it'd probably be a good idea to refeed at least once every 2 weeks if not weekly.
    if you are just performing light-moderate weight-training, LISS, or endurance cardio, then probably a small refeed once every month would be more than sufficient for you.[/QUOTE]

    doing both of these. Would a cheat meal work ? or a small 3 hr window work ?
    The scientific and practical amount of carbohydrate needed in the diet is ZERO -- NONE. Dietary carbohydrates are not a requirement in any body function. In fact it appears that the lower the carbohydrate level in the diet the better the long-term health. Age-related degenerative diseases are caused by high levels of carbohydrates in the diet. One can be on a very low or zero-carbohydrate diet indefinitely as has been shown by the study of many primitive societies.
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    Originally Posted by Boochie21 View Post
    if you are performing intense exercise such as heavy weight-training or HIIT then it'd probably be a good idea to refeed at least once every 2 weeks if not weekly.
    if you are just performing light-moderate weight-training, LISS, or endurance cardio, then probably a small refeed once every month would be more than sufficient for you.

    doing both of these. Would a cheat meal work ? or a small 3 hr window work ?
    yeah, for sure. refeeding is extremely beneficial if needed and/or done correctly for the right reasons.

    you might as well just dedicate a whole day to refeeding since you're probably going to be knocked out of ketosis for the whole day anyway.

    i think i wrote that section badly but i can't edit it anymore. dang it. oh well
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    Originally Posted by shadowwalker021 View Post
    yeah, for sure. refeeding is extremely beneficial if needed and/or done correctly for the right reasons.

    you might as well just dedicate a whole day to refeeding since you're probably going to be knocked out of ketosis for the whole day anyway.

    i think i wrote that section badly but i can't edit it anymore. dang it. oh well
    Mine are not the best way to carb up. Its mostly cereal and pizza I think I small window will be fine for me - for sanity.
    The scientific and practical amount of carbohydrate needed in the diet is ZERO -- NONE. Dietary carbohydrates are not a requirement in any body function. In fact it appears that the lower the carbohydrate level in the diet the better the long-term health. Age-related degenerative diseases are caused by high levels of carbohydrates in the diet. One can be on a very low or zero-carbohydrate diet indefinitely as has been shown by the study of many primitive societies.
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    Originally Posted by Boochie21 View Post
    Mine are not the best way to carb up. Its mostly cereal and pizza I think I small window will be fine for me - for sanity.
    haha well i'd say your sanity is pretty important so go crazy (or wait... don't go crazy literally)
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    Registered User Boochie21's Avatar
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    Originally Posted by shadowwalker021 View Post
    haha well i'd say your sanity is pretty important so go crazy (or wait... don't go crazy literally)
    Yes, after I cheat I feel so guilty and discouraged. Deff. right now after seeing the transforamtion pictures for the $100,000 challenge. Im not a winner
    The scientific and practical amount of carbohydrate needed in the diet is ZERO -- NONE. Dietary carbohydrates are not a requirement in any body function. In fact it appears that the lower the carbohydrate level in the diet the better the long-term health. Age-related degenerative diseases are caused by high levels of carbohydrates in the diet. One can be on a very low or zero-carbohydrate diet indefinitely as has been shown by the study of many primitive societies.
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    Originally Posted by JAGERBOY View Post
    Hmmm, I also compete and train in Muay Thai/MMA, and you think that an SKD approach is better? Most of what I've read, mainly from Lyle would indicate the CKD approach would be better.
    Yes, I would agree that CKD is optimal, but it doesn't agree with me. I personally don't like the feeling associated with jumping in and out of ketosis. The 5 to 10lb jump in weight is not desirable either, in my case. Densely packed power in a small frame is my ideal in my sport. I'm building my career in and out of Thailand and China, where fighters are all fairly light. If I were anywhere else, I would go for size.

    Going 30+ days on no carbs gives me a cutting edge sensation. I think more quickly and I become more creative with my combinations. It's quite nice. Will I ever jump from 160lb to 175? I'm hoping for a breakthrough
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