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  1. #31
    Not Swimming. Emma-Leigh's Avatar
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    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17413101

    Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Apr;85(4):1023-30. Links

    Comment in:
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):1249-50; author reply 1250.


    Long-term effects of 2 energy-restricted diets differing in glycemic load on dietary adherence, body composition, and metabolism in CALERIE: a 1-y randomized controlled trial.

    Das SK, Gilhooly CH, Golden JK, Pittas AG, Fuss PJ, Cheatham RA, Tyler S, Tsay M, McCrory MA, Lichtenstein AH, Dallal GE, Dutta C, Bhapkar MV, Delany JP, Saltzman E, Roberts SB.
    Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA.
    BACKGROUND: There remains no consensus about the optimal dietary composition for sustained weight loss. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the effects of 2 dietary macronutrient patterns with different glycemic loads on adherence to a prescribed regimen of calorie restriction (CR), weight and fat loss, and related variables. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of diets with a high glycemic load (HG) or a low glycemic load (LG) at 30% CR was conducted in 34 healthy overweight adults with a mean (+/-SD) age of 35 +/- 6 y and body mass index (kg/m(2)) of 27.6 +/- 1.4. All food was provided for 6 mo in diets controlled for confounding variables, and subjects self-administered the plans for 6 additional months. Primary and secondary outcomes included energy intake measured by doubly labeled water, body weight and fatness, hunger, satiety, and resting metabolic rate. RESULTS: All groups consumed significantly less energy during CR than at baseline (P < 0.01), but changes in energy intake, body weight, body fat, and resting metabolic rate did not differ significantly between groups. Both groups ate more energy than provided (eg, 21% and 28% CR at 3 mo and 16% and 17% CR at 6 mo with HG and LG, respectively). Percentage weight change at 12 mo was -8.04 +/- 4.1% in the HG group and -7.81 +/- 5.0% in the LG group. There was no effect of dietary composition on changes in hunger, satiety, or satisfaction with the amount and type of provided food during CR. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide more detailed evidence to suggest that diets differing substantially in glycemic load induce comparable long-term weight loss.
    *perfer et obdura; dolor hic tibi proderit olim*
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  2. #32
    Not Swimming. Emma-Leigh's Avatar
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    just a few on anorexia and thermogenesis

    some readings behind why anorexia requires >>> energy intake than what would be predicted...

    http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/80/6/1469

    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 80, No. 6, 1469-1477, December 2004
    ? 2004 American Society for Clinical Nutrition
    ORIGINAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATION

    Factors associated with the increase in resting energy expenditure during refeeding in malnourished anorexia nervosa patients1,2,3

    Virginie Van Wymelbeke, Laurent Brondel, Jean Marcel Brun and Daniel Rigaud
    1 From the Centre Europ?en des Sciences du Go?t, Medical Research Unit-National Center of Scientific Research 5170, Dijon, France (VVW, LB, and DR), and the Service d'Endocrinologie, Le Bocage University Hospital, Dijon, France (DR and JMB)

    Background: In malnourished anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, body-weight gain during refeeding is slowed by an increase in resting energy expenditure (REE).

    Objective: The objective of the study was to identify factors associated with the increase in REE during refeeding.

    Design: Before and 8, 30, and 45 d after the beginning of refeeding, REE was studied by indirect calorimetry in 87 female AN patients [ ? SD age: 23.4 ? 7.9 y; body mass index (in kg/m2) 13.2 ? 1.3]. Energy intake, body composition (by bioelectrical impedance analysis), physical activity, smoking behavior, abdominal pain, anxiety, depressive mood, serum thyrotropin and thyroid hormone, and urinary catecholamines were measured. REE was also evaluated in 18 patients after 1 y of recovery.

    Results: By day 8, REE increased from 3.84 ? 0.6 to 4.36 ? 0.59 MJ/d (P < 0.01). This increase (13.4%) was significantly (P < 0.01) greater than that expected on the basis of the increase in fat-free mass (FFM; 1.6%). Thereafter, the ratio of REE to FFM remained high and, in multivariate analysis, was significantly related to 4 factors: energy intake (P < 0.01), anxiety (P < 0.01), abdominal pain (P < 0.05), and depressive mood (P < 0.05). The ratio also increased significantly with physical activity (P < 0.01) and cigarette smoking (P < 0.02). This rise in REE leveled off after recovery from AN.

    Conclusion: In AN patients, the rise in REE observed during refeeding was independently linked to anxiety level, abdominal pain, physical activity, and cigarette smoking, and it contributed to resistance to weight gain.
    http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/con...ract/92/5/1623

    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Vol. 92, No. 5 1623-1629
    Copyright ? 2007 by The Endocrine Society
    Hormonal and Psychological Factors Linked to the Increased Thermic Effect of Food in Malnourished Fasting Anorexia Nervosa

    Daniel Rigaud, Bruno Verges, Nicole Colas-Linhart, Anne Petiet, Myriam Moukkaddem, Virginie Van Wymelbeke and Laurent Brondel
    Centre Europ?en des Sciences du Go?t (D.R., V.V.W., L.B.), Unit? Mixte de Recherche-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 5170, 21000 Dijon, France; Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Le Bocage (B.V., M.M.), 21079 Dijon, France; and Faculty of Medicine X. Bichat (N.C.-L., A.P.), 75018 Paris, France

    Address all correspondence and requests for reprints to: Prof. Daniel Rigaud, Service d?Endocrinologie et Nutrition, H?pital Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Le Bocage, 21079 Dijon Cedex, France. E-mail: daniel.rigaud@chu-dijon.fr.

    Objectives: In patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), weight gain is lower than that expected from the energy content of the meals. Thus we investigated the thermic effect of food (TEF) in relation to subjective feelings and plasma hormone levels in a group of AN patients.

    Methods: TEF, feelings (14 items), and plasma release of ?-endorphin, ACTH, cortisol, dopamine, and catecholamines were evaluated in 15 AN patients (body mass index, 13.6 ? 1.2 kg?m?2) and in 15 healthy women after three gastric loads (0, 300, 700 kcal) infused by a nasogastric tube in a blind design.

    Results: In AN, the blind loads induced an energy-dependent increase in TEF (P < 0.001), which was higher than that observed in healthy women (P < 0.001). Only in AN, a load-dependent decline in the high basal plasma level of ?-endorphin (P < 0.01), an increase in plasma ACTH (P < 0.02) after the two caloric loads, and an increase in cortisol, norepinephrine, and dopamine levels after the 700-kcal load only (P < 0.05) were noted. A calorie-dependent (P < 0.001) increase in nausea, abdominal discomfort, and fear of being fat ratings and a decrease in liking to eat (P < 0.001) and body image were observed in AN patients (P < 0.05). TEF correlated with ratings on satiation, nausea, uncomfortable abdominal swelling, body image, and fear of being fat (for all, P < 0.01).

    Conclusion: In AN women, blindly infused loads induced a dose-dependent increase in TEF, which correlated with the increase in plasma cortisol, ACTH, and catecholamines as in unpleasant sensations, fear of being fat, and anxiety as well as a decline in elevated basal ?-endorphin. These results could explain the difficulty for AN patients in gaining weight.
    *perfer et obdura; dolor hic tibi proderit olim*
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  3. #33
    MISC RD elmariachii's Avatar
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    Ingested protein dose response of muscle and albumin protein synthesis after resistance exercise in young men

    Moore DR, Robinson MJ, Fry JL, Tang JE, Glover EI, Wilkinson SB, Prior T, Tarnopolsky MA, Phillips SM.
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jan;89(1):161-8. Epub 2008 Dec 3.


    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19056590





    BACKGROUND: The anabolic effect of resistance exercise is enhanced by the provision of dietary protein. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the ingested protein dose response of muscle (MPS) and albumin protein synthesis (APS) after resistance exercise. In addition, we measured the phosphorylation of candidate signaling proteins thought to regulate acute changes in MPS. DESIGN: Six healthy young men reported to the laboratory on 5 separate occasions to perform an intense bout of leg-based resistance exercise. After exercise, participants consumed, in a randomized order, drinks containing 0, 5, 10, 20, or 40 g whole egg protein. Protein synthesis and whole-body leucine oxidation were measured over 4 h after exercise by a primed constant infusion of [1-(13)C]leucine. RESULTS: MPS displayed a dose response to dietary protein ingestion and was maximally stimulated at 20 g. The phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase (Thr(389)), ribosomal protein S6 (Ser(240/244)), and the epsilon-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (Ser(539)) were unaffected by protein ingestion. APS increased in a dose-dependent manner and also reached a plateau at 20 g ingested protein. Leucine oxidation was significantly increased after 20 and 40 g protein were ingested. CONCLUSIONS: Ingestion of 20 g intact protein is sufficient to maximally stimulate MPS and APS after resistance exercise. Phosphorylation of candidate signaling proteins was not enhanced with any dose of protein ingested, which suggested that the stimulation of MPS after resistance exercise may be related to amino acid availability. Finally, dietary protein consumed after exercise in excess of the rate at which it can be incorporated into tissue protein stimulates irreversible oxidation.
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  4. #34
    MISC RD elmariachii's Avatar
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    Hepatoprotective effects of whey protein on D-galactosamine-induced hepatitis and liver fibrosis in rats.

    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006 May;70(5):1281-5.
    Kume H, Okazaki K, Sasaki H.


    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1...m&ordinalpos=8




    The hepatoprotective effects of whey protein on two injections of D-galactosamine (300 mg/kg, i.p.) were investigated in rats fed a modified AIN-93M diet formulated with a protein source of casein or whey for 16 d. The whey protein-containing diet clearly suppressed an increase in plasma alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activity, lactate dehydrogenase and bilirubin, which are hepatitis markers, and also hyaluronic acid, a fibrosis marker. In addition, it suppressed histopathological signs of portal fibrosis, bile duct proliferation, and perivenular sclerosis. These results suggest that supplementation with whey protein can help prevent the development of hepatitis and portal fibrosis.
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  5. #35
    not hyooge but healthy dustinlima's Avatar
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    Know Your Fats

    Mary G. Enig, lipid biology PhD

    http://www.westonaprice.org/knowyourfats/index.html

    Consider it
    Last edited by dustinlima; 10-29-2009 at 11:16 PM.
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  6. #36
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    Originally Posted by dustinlima View Post
    Mary G. Enig, lipid biology PhD

    http://www.westonaprice.org/knowyourfats/index.html

    KNOW THEM!
    ^ appreciate your input but a somewhat dodgy source.
    A little misinformation mixed up with the truth in many of those articles.
    *perfer et obdura; dolor hic tibi proderit olim*
    "The greatest rewards are always reserved for those who bring great value to themselves and the world around them as a result of whom and what they have become." - Jim Rohn
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  7. #37
    not hyooge but healthy dustinlima's Avatar
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    Mmk I edited the "KNOW THEM" to "Consider it"

    At least consider the articles with multiple references (like 15+)
    Last edited by dustinlima; 10-29-2009 at 11:22 PM.
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  8. #38
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    Originally Posted by dustinlima View Post
    Mmk I edited the "KNOW THEM" to "Consider it" :z

    At least consider the articles with multiple references (like 15+)
    No one's going to consider anything. Also, I've read that link way back, it looks pretty simple.
    http://img36.imageshack.us/img36/5223/1279510613512.jpg
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  9. #39
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    Pre- and Post-prandial Appetite Hormone Levels in Normal Weight and Severely Obese Wo

    Pre- and Post-prandial Appetite Hormone Levels in Normal Weight and Severely Obese Women

    Joseph J. Carlson; Amy A. Turpin; Gail Wiebke; Steven C. Hunt; Ted D. Adams

    Published: 10/14/2009
    Abstract

    Background:
    Appetite is affected by many factors including the hormones leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin. Ghrelin stimulates hunger, leptin promotes satiety, and adiponectin affects insulin response. This study was designed to test whether the pre- and postprandial response of key appetite hormones differs in normal weight (NW) and severely obese (SO) women.

    Methods: Twenty three women ages 25-50 were recruited for this study including 10 NW (BMI = 23.1 ? 1.3 kg/m2) and 13 SO (BMI = 44.5 ? 7.1 kg/m2). The study was conducted in a hospital-based clinical research centre. Following a 12-hour fast, participants had a baseline blood draw, consumed a moderately high carbohydrate meal (60% carbohydrate, 20% protein, 20% fat) based on body weight. Postprandially, participants had six blood samples drawn at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Primary measures included pre- and post-prandial total ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin and insulin. A repeated measures general linear model was used to evaluate the hormone changes by group and time (significance p ≤ 0.05).

    Results: There were significant differences between the NW and the SO for all hormones in the preprandial fasting state. The postprandial responses between the SO versus NW revealed: higher leptin (p < 0.0001), lower adiponectin (p = 0.04), trend for lower ghrelin (p = 0.06) and insulin was not different (p = 0.26). Postprandial responses over time between the SO versus NW: higher leptin (p < 0.001), lower ghrelin and adiponectin (p = 0.004, p = 0.015, respectively), and trend for higher insulin (p = 0.06).

    Conclusion: This study indicates that significant differences in both pre- and selected post- prandial levels of leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin and insulin exist between NW and SO women. Improving our understanding of the biochemical mechanisms accounting for these differences in appetite hormones among individuals with varying body size and adiposity should aid in the development of future therapies to prevent and treat obesity.
    More interesting stuff on leptin, adiponectin, insulin connection.

    Question: Have any pharmaceuticals/supplement companies done anything to try and increase expression of adiponectin?
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  10. #40
    Registered User snorkelman's Avatar
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    Recent study shows nutritional labeling inaccurate for frozen meals and restaurants

    In a recent study (published in the January 2010 issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association), researchers from Tufts University found that some restaurant and frozen foods contained more calories than indicated in nutritional labeling.

    The Accuracy of Stated Energy Contents of Reduced-Energy, Commercially Prepared Foods Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Volume 110, Issue 1, Pages 116-123 L. Urban, et. al.

    Can anyone attach to this thread the full text?
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  11. #41
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    Originally Posted by snorkelman View Post
    In a recent study (published in the January 2010 issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association), researchers from Tufts University found that some restaurant and frozen foods contained more calories than indicated in nutritional labeling.

    The Accuracy of Stated Energy Contents of Reduced-Energy, Commercially Prepared Foods Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Volume 110, Issue 1, Pages 116-123 L. Urban, et. al.

    Can anyone attach to this thread the full text?
    I have the full paper - but due to copyright issues can't post it here for all to see...

    However - abstract:

    Abstract
    The accuracy of stated energy contents of reduced-energy restaurant foods and frozen meals purchased from supermarkets was evaluated. Measured energy values of 29 quick-serve and sit-down restaurant foods averaged 18% more than stated values, and measured energy values of 10 frozen meals purchased from supermarkets averaged 8% more than originally stated. These differences substantially exceeded laboratory measurement error but did not achieve statistical significance due to considerable variability in the degree of underreporting. Some individual restaurant items contained up to 200% of stated values and, in addition, free side dishes increased provided energy to an average of 245% of stated values for the entrees they accompanied. These findings suggest that stated energy contents of reduced-energy meals obtained from restaurants and supermarkets are not consistently accurate, and in this study averaged more than measured values, especially when free side dishes were taken into account. If widespread, this phenomenon could hamper efforts to self-monitor energy intake to control weight, and could also reduce the potential benefit of recent policy initiatives to disseminate information on food energy content at the point of purchase.


    And Conclusions:
    Mean measured energy contents of reduced-energy restaurant and supermarket meals in this pilot study exceeded vendor-stated amounts by substantially more than could be accounted for by laboratory measurement error. Although the discrepancies were within acceptable limits based on federal regulations for most packaged and restaurant foods (which are not subject to these federal regulations) some restaurant foods did have measured energy contents that were double those stated by the restaurant, and free side dishes contained more energy on average than the entrees they accompanied. On an individual level, discrepancies of this magnitude, if widespread, are likely to substantially hamper efforts to control weight by individuals self-monitoring their energy intake. On a public scale, the emerging policy initiatives on requiring energy information at the point of purchase may not translate into improved dietary intake if foods typically contain more energy than stated. Based on these findings, registered dietitians can advise consumers about the wide variability in accuracy of stated energy contents for prepared reduced-energy foods. Approaches to improving the accuracy of stated energy information may include increased attention to quality control in food preparation. Additional measures may also be needed such as improved federal and state regulations and a monitoring system to ensure compliance.
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    Registered User snorkelman's Avatar
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    Antioxidant activity of blueberry fruit is impaired by association with milk.

    I figured that y'all would find this interesting


    Blueberries make their mark on cardiovascular and diabetes risks, U-M animal study finds

    Research shows blueberry intake reduced abdominal fat and lowered risk for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome in obese lab rats

    Blueberries make their mark on cardiovascular and diabetes risks, U-M animal study finds

    Meet the expert:
    Steven Bolling, M.D.

    ANN ARBOR, Mich. — Could eating blueberries help get rid of belly fat? And could a blueberry-enriched diet stem the conditions that lead to diabetes? A new University of Michigan Cardiovascular Center study suggests so.

    The new research, presented Sunday at the Experimental Biology convention in New Orleans, gives tantalizing clues to the potential of blueberries in reducing risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The effect is thought to be due to the high level of phytochemicals - naturally occurring antioxidants - that blueberries contain.

    The study was performed in laboratory rats. While the animal findings suggest blueberries may be protective against two health conditions that affect millions of Americans, more research should be done.

    The researchers studied the effect of blueberries (freeze dried blueberries crushed into a powder) that were mixed into the rat diet, as part of either a low- or high-fat diet. They performed many comparisons between the rats consuming the test diets and the control rats receiving no blueberry powder. All the rats were from a research breed that is prone to being severely overweight.

    In all, after 90 days, the rats that received the blueberry-enriched powder, measured as 2 percent of their diet, had less abdominal fat, lower triglycerides, lower cholesterol, and improved fasting glucose and insulin sensitivity, which are measures of how well the body processes glucose for energy.

    While regular blueberry intake reduced these risks for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, the health benefits were even better when combined with a low-fat diet.

    In addition to all the other health benefits, the group that consumed a low-fat diet had lower body weight, lower total fat mass and reduced liver mass, than those who ate a high fat diet. An enlarged liver is linked to obesity and insulin resistance, a hallmark of diabetes.

    The rats in the study were similar to Americans who suffer fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome as a result of high-fat diets and obesity. Metabolic syndrome is a group of health problems that include too much fat around the waist, elevated blood pressure, elevated blood sugar, high triglycerides, and together these conditions increase the risk of heart attacks, strokes and diabetes.

    But were the health benefits seen in rats a result of losing abdominal fat, or something else?

    "Some measurements were changed by blueberry even if the rats were on a high fat diet," says E. Mitchell Seymour, M.S., lead researcher and manager of the U-M Cardioprotection Research Laboratory. "We found by looking at fat muscle tissue, that blueberry intake affected genes related to fat-burning and storage. Looking at muscle tissue, we saw altered genes related to glucose uptake."

    Steven Bolling, M.D., a U-M heart surgeon and head of the Cardioprotection Laboratory, says: "The benefits of eating fruits and vegetables has been well-researched, but our findings in regard to blueberries shows the naturally occurring chemicals they contain, such as anthocyanins, show promise in mitigating these health conditions."

    Although the current study was supported by the U.S. Highbush Blueberry Council, which also supplied the blueberry powder, the council did not play a role in the study’s conduct, analysis or the preparation of the poster presentation.

    Experimental Biology 2009 convention, where the study results were presented, includes the annual meetings of six societies and brings together scientists from throughout the United States and the world, representing dozens of scientific areas, from laboratory to translational to clinical research.

    For more information on the U-M Cardioprotection Research Laboratory, visit http://sitemaker.umich.edu/cardiac.phytomed/research

    Antioxidant activity of blueberry fruit is impaired by association with milk.

    Serafini M, Testa MF, Villaño D, Pecorari M, van Wieren K, Azzini E, Brambilla A, Maiani G.

    Antioxidant Research Laboratory, Unit of Human Nutrition, Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e la Nutrizione, 00178 Rome, Italy. serafini_mauro@yahoo.it

    The antioxidant properties of dietary phenolics are believed to be reduced in vivo because of their affinity for proteins. In this study we assessed the bioavailability of phenolics and the in vivo plasma antioxidant capacity after the consumption of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) with and without milk. In a crossover design, 11 healthy human volunteers consumed either (a) 200 g of blueberries plus 200 ml of water or (b) 200 g of blueberries plus 200 ml of whole milk. Venous samples were collected at baseline and at 1, 2, and 5 h postconsumption. Ingestion of blueberries increased plasma levels of reducing and chain-breaking potential (+6.1%, p<0.001; +11.1%, p<0.05) and enhanced plasma concentrations of caffeic and ferulic acid. When blueberries and milk were ingested there was no increase in plasma antioxidant capacity. There was a reduction in the peak plasma concentrations of caffeic and ferulic acid (-49.7%, p<0.001, and -19.8%, p<0.05, respectively) as well as the overall absorption (AUC) of caffeic acid (p<0.001). The ingestion of blueberries in association with milk, thus, impairs the in vivo antioxidant properties of blueberries and reduces the absorption of caffeic acid.
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    See - exercise makes your brain big too...
    Journal Of Science And Medicine In Sport / Sports Medicine Australia [J Sci Med Sport] 2009 Nov; Vol. 12 (6), pp. 688-90. Date of Electronic Publication: 2009 Jan 14.

    Can exercise shape your brain? Cortical differences associated with judo practice.
    Jacini WF; Cannonieri GC; Fernandes PT; Bonilha L; Cendes F; Li LM

    Laboratory of Neuroimaging, Faculty of Medical Sciences of State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil.

    Abstract:
    Experimental animal studies have shown that physical exercise, associated with planning and execution of complex movements, are related to changes in brain structure. In humans, changes in cortical tissue density in relation to physical activity are yet to be fully determined and quantified. We investigated differences on gray matter volume in judo players by using voxel-based morphometry. Comparison between a group of eight internationally competitive judo players and a group of 18 healthy controls showed a significantly higher gray matter tissue density in brain areas of judo players.

    PMID: 19147406
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    Diabetes Care September 2005 vol. 28 no. 9 2123-212

    Influence of Glycemic Index/Load on Glycemic Response, Appetite, and Food Intake in Healthy Humans
    Rita C.G. Alfenas, PHD1 and Richard D. Mattes, PHD2
    + Author Affiliations

    1Departamento de Nutrição e Saúde, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil
    2Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana
    Address correspondence and reprint requests to Richard D. Mattes, PhD, Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, Stone Hall, Rm. 212, 700 W. State St., West Lafayette, Indiana. E-mail: mattes@purdue.edu

    Next Section
    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE—High glycemic index (GI)/load (GL) diets reportedly enhance appetite and promote positive energy balance. Support for this hypothesis stems largely from acute feeding trials and longer-term studies lacking control over the macronutrient composition and palatability of test foods. This study evaluated the effects of consuming high- and low-GI/GL meals, matched on macronutrient composition and palatability, plasma glucose and insulin, appetite, and food intake.

    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Thirty-nine healthy adults consumed only low- or only high-GI foods ad libitum in the laboratory for 8 days in either high (three foods per meal)- or low (one food per meal)-variety conditions. Glucose and insulin concentrations as well as appetitive sensations were determined before and for 2 h following breakfast and lunch on days 1 and 8. Energy intake was monitored daily.

    RESULTS—There were no significant differences in plasma glucose or insulin responses, appetitive ratings, or food intake between treatments.

    CONCLUSIONS—These data indicate that the differential glycemic response of foods tested in isolation under fixed time are not preserved under conditions of chronic ad libitum consumption of mixed meals.
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    ...
    Horm Metab Res. 2010 Jan 21. [Epub ahead of print]
    Effect of Carbohydrate- and Protein-rich Meals on Exercise-induced Activation of Lipolysis in Obese Subjects.
    Erdmann J, Tholl S, Schusdziarra V.

    Else-Kröner-Fresenius Center of Nutritional Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar,Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
    Exercise is an important part of obesity treatment concepts to support fat mobilisation from adipose tissue and also fat oxidation nolich is impaired in obese subjects. In normal weight subjects it is well known that stimulation of plasma insulin levels by a carbohydrate meal can inhibit lipolysis and subsequent fat oxidation. Since obese subjects frequently have elevated basal and postprandial insulin levels the effect of carbohydrate- and protein-rich test meals on exercise-induced activation of lipolysis is of special interest. Twenty obese subjects performed bicycle exercise for 30 min in the fasted state, 30 min after a carbohydrate-or a protein-rich meal, and 120 min after the carbohydrate meal (n=12), respectively, at low intensity. Activation of lipolysis was assessed by plasma glycerol levels. In addition, plasma insulin, glucose, and lactate concentrations were determined. In comparison to the fasted state, the carbohydrate meal suppressed activation of lipolysis. Following the protein meal, exercise led to an attenuated but significant increase of glycerol levels. A similar rise was observed when the carbohydrate meal was ingested 2 h prior to the exercise bout. To improve exercise-induced lipolysis and subsequent fat oxidation during low-intensity exercise obese subjects should not ingest carbohydrates immediately before exercise. Hunger sensations should be satisfied with protein-rich food. When carbohydrates are consumed 2 h prior to exercise its lipolytic effect is comparable to the protein meal. These data are useful in every day dietary counselling and might help to improve weight loss during obesity treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
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    Originally Posted by Emma-Leigh View Post
    ...
    Slightly confused. 1st it says the protein-rich meal improved conditions. Then it says that a similar effect was observed when carbohydrates were ingested 2hrs prior. And then says carbohydrates should not be ingested prior. What am I misunderstanding?
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    Originally Posted by determined4000 View Post
    Slightly confused. 1st it says the protein-rich meal improved conditions. Then it says that a similar effect was observed when carbohydrates were ingested 2hrs prior. And then says carbohydrates should not be ingested prior. What am I misunderstanding?
    The study says the carbs should not be ingested 30 min prior to LISS, while it's supposedly alright if you eat them 120 mins prior to.
    "In all things there is a poison and there is nothing without a poison. It depends only upon the dose whether a poison is a poison or not." ~ Paracelsus
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  18. #48
    nevigsawkufelgnisaton in10city's Avatar
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    Originally Posted by determined4000 View Post
    Slightly confused. 1st it says the protein-rich meal improved conditions. Then it says that a similar effect was observed when carbohydrates were ingested 2hrs prior. And then says carbohydrates should not be ingested prior. What am I misunderstanding?
    All of the test meals reduced exercise induced lipolysis. Unfortunately they didn't do any metabolic - RER, and other ventilatory measurements like actually quantify the significance of the change. Lipolysis is one thing - oxidation is another.

    In another recent study that evaluated that latter difference, it was tiny when you look further away in time from the acute effects.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17111004
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    Originally Posted by EmperorRyker View Post
    The study says the carbs should not be ingested 30 min prior to LISS, while it's supposedly alright if you eat them 120 mins prior to.
    Ok thats what I gathered. IF your goal is not fat loss, would it still be optimal to ingest earlier?
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  20. #50
    in haiti, cut is paused Insight's Avatar
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    Dietary GI associated with decreased premenstrual symptoms in young Japanese women

    A caveat: I have not thoroughly read this study, I don't have the time right now. The abstract alone indicates that there are serious problems with the way this study was conducted. Despite that, it provides some interesting food for thought about the way many "treat" foods and tend to overgeneralize them as "good" vs "bad."

    There are a lot of problems with this study. But the fact that someone even thought to study this at all demonstrates a lateral and critical thinking pattern that serious researchers in a field often display, which many people never develop. Most laypeople assume that even though we like high-GI foods, they are "bad" -- assuming an positive correlation between the pleasure of a stimulus and its maladaptive potential. Many nutrition experts, on the other hand, treat the glycemic index as an antiquated relic that is of little practical usefulness.

    These researchers were brilliant in questioning this and assuming otherwise. What is even more brilliant IMO is their lateral thinking to consider that perhaps "enjoying" a high-GI carb might actually be represented as an increase in serotonin, which is a physical and concrete biological marker. Then they considered that this might presumably lead to other tangible, positive health effects (in this case the decrease of premenstrual symptoms).

    Just pointing out how the real "experts" in a field of study tend to think. Nothing is taken for granted, and everything has a concrete explanation. This is what separates the intellectual bourgeoisie from the proletariat: the ability to "demystify" a certain topic (like that people tend to enjoy eating high-GI carbohydrates) and consider what the real concrete and scientific explanation for this might be, and then use that as the basis for a further train of thought.

    Here is the link:

    http://www.nutritionjrnl.com/article...085-3/abstract

    And here's the abstract:
    Objectives
    High glycemic index (GI) carbohydrates may increase brain serotonin, which in turn acts to alleviate premenstrual symptoms, because, although the main determinant of brain serotonin concentration is a high plasma ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids, a high-GI diet has been shown to increase this ratio. In this observational cross-sectional study, we investigated associations between dietary GI and other dietary carbohydrates and premenstrual symptoms.

    Methods
    Subjects were 640 female Japanese dietetic students 18?22 y of age. Dietary carbohydrates were assessed using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Menstrual cycle symptoms were assessed using the retrospective version of the Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ). Independent associations of dietary GI and glycemic load and intake of available carbohydrate and dietary fiber with the MDQ total score and subscale scores (pain, concentration, behavioral change, autonomic reactions, water retention, and negative affect) in the premenstrual phase (expressed as percentages relative to those in the intermenstrual phase) were examined.

    Results
    Dietary GI was independently inversely associated with total MDQ score in the premenstrual phase (P for trend = 0.02). Dietary GI also showed independent and inverse associations with several MDQ subscale scores in the premenstrual phase, including concentration, autonomic reactions, and water retention (P for trend < 0.05). Conversely, dietary glycemic load and intake of available carbohydrate and dietary fiber were not associated with any of the MDQ scores in the premenstrual phase.

    Conclusion
    Dietary GI was independently associated with decreased premenstrual symptoms in a group of young Japanese women.
    Some interesting parts were bolded. While from this abstract this seems like far from the most conclusive study on the matter (diet history questionnaire? lol), there is an interesting concept here that I would like to see studied further.

    The last bolded sentence, that dietary glycemic load is not also associated with this sane trend, is what really makes this interesting for me -- this would generally indicate that it doesn't matter how much of the high-GI food is being eaten, but that it is being eaten that counts (with some caveats, such as foods that are extremely high GI and extremely low GL). AKA, the results were different between someone who ate ice cream and an equivalent-GL serving of oatmeal.

    This increase in serotonin could be due to that in general high-GI foods are "sweeter", and that the pleasure felt from eating sweet foods itself IS represented as an increase in serotonin. Or it could be that allowing oneself to eat foods that one likes leads to a more positive state of mind, represented in general as an increase in serotonin. Or it could simply be due to some physiological property of high-GI foods (though I doubt it).

    Either way, this study subtly hints at something I have believed for a long time now - that incorporating some "pleasure foods" into ones diet can lead to improved psychological health - represented in the body via certain neurological markers - which can lead to improved physical health as well.
    Last edited by Insight; 01-26-2010 at 09:57 PM.
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    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27834
    Vol. 90, No. 3, 519-526, September 2009
    Gluconeogenesis and energy expenditure after a high-protein, carbohydrate-free diet1,2,3

    Margriet AB Veldhorst, Margriet S Westerterp-Plantenga and Klaas R Westerterp
    1 From the NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, Netherlands, and the Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, Netherlands.

    2 Supported by the Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, Netherlands.

    3 Address correspondence to MAB Veldhorst, Maastricht University, Department of Human Biology, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, Netherlands. E-mail: m.veldhorst@hb.unimaas.nl.

    Background: High-protein diets have been shown to increase energy expenditure (EE).

    Objective: The objective was to study whether a high-protein, carbohydrate-free diet (H diet) increases gluconeogenesis and whether this can explain the increase in EE.

    Design: Ten healthy men with a mean (±SEM) body mass index (in kg/m2) of 23.0 ± 0.8 and age of 23 ± 1 y received an isoenergetic H diet (H condition; 30%, 0%, and 70% of energy from protein, carbohydrate, and fat, respectively) or a normal-protein diet (N condition; 12%, 55%, and 33% of energy from protein, carbohydrate, and fat, respectively) for 1.5 d according to a randomized crossover design, and EE was measured in a respiration chamber. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) and fractional gluconeogenesis were measured via infusion of [6,6-2H2]glucose and ingestion of 2H2O; absolute gluconeogenesis was calculated by multiplying fractional gluconeogenesis by EGP. Body glycogen stores were lowered at the start of the intervention with an exhaustive glycogen-lowering exercise test.

    Results: EGP was lower in the H condition than in the N condition (181 ± 9 compared with 226 ± 9 g/d; P < 0.001), whereas fractional gluconeogenesis was higher (0.95 ± 0.04 compared with 0.64 ± 0.03; P < 0.001) and absolute gluconeogenesis tended to be higher (171 ± 10 compared with 145 ± 10 g/d; P = 0.06) in the H condition than in the N condition. EE (resting metabolic rate) was greater in the H condition than in the N condition (8.46 ± 0.23 compared with 8.12 ± 0.31 MJ/d; P < 0.05). The increase in EE was a function of the increase in gluconeogenesis (EE = 0.007 x gluconeogenesis – 0.038; r = 0.70, R2 = 0.49, P < 0.05). The contribution of gluconeogenesis to EE was 42%; the energy cost of gluconeogenesis was 33% (95% CI: 16%, 50%).

    Conclusions: Forty-two percent of the increase in energy expenditure after the H diet was explained by the increase in gluconeogenesis. The cost of gluconeogenesis was 33% of the energy content of the produced glucose.
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    Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 23, No. 5, 373-385 (2004)
    Published by the American College of Nutrition

    The Effects of High Protein Diets on Thermogenesis, Satiety and Weight Loss: A Critical Review

    Thomas L. Halton and Frank B. Hu, MD, PhD
    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts

    Address reprint requests to: Dr. Frank Hu, Dept. of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115. E-mail: frank.hu@channing.harvard.edu


    For years, proponents of some fad diets have claimed that higher amounts of protein facilitate weight loss. Only in recent years have studies begun to examine the effects of high protein diets on energy expenditure, subsequent energy intake and weight loss as compared to lower protein diets. In this study, we conducted a systematic review of randomized investigations on the effects of high protein diets on dietary thermogenesis, satiety, body weight and fat loss. There is convincing evidence that a higher protein intake increases thermogenesis and satiety compared to diets of lower protein content. The weight of evidence also suggests that high protein meals lead to a reduced subsequent energy intake. Some evidence suggests that diets higher in protein result in an increased weight loss and fat loss as compared to diets lower in protein, but findings have not been consistent. In dietary practice, it may be beneficial to partially replace refined carbohydrate with protein sources that are low in saturated fat. Although recent evidence supports potential benefit, rigorous longer-term studies are needed to investigate the effects of high protein diets on weight loss and weight maintenance.

    Key words: high protein diets, thermogenesis, satiety, body weight, fat loss

    Key teaching points:

    ? Although authors of some fad diets have advocated increasing dietary protein for weight loss, not until recently have studies begun to investigate the effects of high protein diets on weight loss.

    ? Convincing evidence exists that protein exerts an increased thermic effect when compared to fat and carbohydrate. Evidence is also convincing that higher protein diets increase satiety when compared to lower protein diets.

    ? Higher protein diets may facilitate weight loss when compared to a lower protein diet in the short term (within 6 months). But long-term data are limited.

    ? Exchange protein for carbohydrates has been shown to improve blood lipids, and in epidemiologic studies, higher protein diets have been associated with lower blood pressure and reduced risk of coronary heart disease.

    ? Although the optimal amount and sources of protein cannot be determined at this time, the weight of evidence suggests that in dietary practice, it may be beneficial to partially replace refined carbohydrate with protein sources that are low in saturated fat.
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    International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders; Jul1997, Vol. 21 Issue 7, p608, 6p

    Effect of food palatability on early (cephalic) phase of diet-induced thermogenesis in nonobese and obese man.

    Authors: Hashkes, Philip J, Gartside, Peter S, Blondheim, S H

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect on the early (cephalic) phase of diet-induced thermogenesis (EDT) of palatable vs unpalatable food, in nonobese and obese man. SUBJECTS: Twenty-four nonobese volunteers and 19 obese clinic patients. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: A palatable, liquid formula meal of Ensure (1048 KJ, 450 ml), and of Ensure made unpalatable by addition of aqueous KCI, were sipped on nonconsecutive mornings. O[sub 2] consumption (ml/min) was measured before, and starting 30, 60 and 90 min after beginning the test meal, from which EDT was calculated as KJ/min. RESULTS: Palatability of the test meal significantly increased EDT (palatability effect, P=0.004) but obesity status per se, did not affect EDT. Nevertheless, the effect of palatability on EDT was dependent on obesity status, being seen only in the nonobese. EDT was significantly greater in the nonobese after the palatable than the unpalatable meal: (mean?s.e.m.) 2.45?0.14 vs 1.83?0.14; P<0.0001, but not in the obese: 1.93?0.28 vs 1.73?0.20; P<0.21. Therefore only after the palatable meal was EDT less in the obese compared with the nonobese: P<0.05. The threshold for the unpleasant taste of added KCI was 31% higher in the obese than the nonobese: 4.2?0.4 vs 3.2?0.2 [g KCI]; P < 0.025. CONCLUSIONS: The early (cephalic) phase of dietary thermogenesis (EDT) is significantly increased in the nonobese by palatability, but not in the obese, so that only after a palatable meal is EDT less, or 'deficient,' in the obese compared with the nonobese. Also, the obese have a higher threshold for the unpleasant taste of KCI (in Ensure) than the nonobese. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

    ISSN: 03070565
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    International Journal of Eating Disorders; Jul96, Vol. 20 Issue 1, p33-41, 9p

    Resting metabolic rate and diet-induced thermogenesis in restrained and unrestrained eaters.
    Authors: Platte, Petra1, Wurmser, Harald1, Wade, Stephen E.1, Mecheril, Anita1, Pirke, Karl M.2

    Abstract:
    The hypothesis was studied whether restrained eaters had reduced resting metabolic rate (RMR) and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and whether the effect was caused by weight cycling. Restrained eaters had significantly lower RMR than unrestrained eaters. No difference in DIT was found. Weight cycling and no weight cycling restrained eaters did not differ with regard to RMR and DIT. These data indicate that restrained eating but not weight cycling significantly reduces RMR. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
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    Originally Posted by Emma-Leigh View Post
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, (H condition; 30%, 0%, and 70% of energy from protein, carbohydrate, and fat, respectively) or a normal-protein diet (N condition; 12%, 55%, and 33% of energy from protein, carbohydrate, and fat, respectively)

    Conclusions: Forty-two percent of the increase in energy expenditure after the H diet was explained by the increase in gluconeogenesis. The cost of gluconeogenesis was 33% of the energy content of the produced glucose.
    It makes sense the EE would be higher when protein is exchanged for carbohydrates,
    but how is it that the overall diet was so much higher given the much higher fat intake (and supposed Thermic effect of fat compared to carbohydrates)
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    Nutrition Bulletin (NUTR BULL), 2007 Mar; 32: Suppl 1: 22-31 (75 ref)

    Sustained protein intake for bodyweight management.
    Westerterp-Plantenga MS; Smeets A; Nieuwenhuizen A
    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands

    Abstract:
    Recent findings suggest that an elevated protein intake plays a key role in bodyweight management, through increased satiety (related to increased diet-induced thermogenesis), and its effect on thermogenesis, body composition and decreased energy efficiency. These factors are related to protein metabolism. Supported by these mechanisms, larger weight loss and subsequent improved bodyweight maintenance have been observed after high-protein diets. Increased insulin sensitivity may occur, but it is unclear whether this is owing to weight loss or type of diet. Under conditions of slight bodyweight regain (while aiming for weight maintenance), a high-protein diet shows a reduced energy efficiency related to the composition of the bodyweight regained. A high-protein diet during negative energy balance and during weight maintenance thereafter preserves, or increases, fat-free mass and reduces fat mass, thus improving the metabolic profile. As protein intake is studied at different energy intakes, absolute and relative protein intakes need to be discriminated. In absolute terms (grams per day), a normal-protein diet becomes a relatively high-protein diet if combined with negative energy balance and at weight maintenance. Therefore, 'high protein, negative energy balance diets' aim to keep the amount (grams) of protein ingested at the same level as consumed at energy balance, despite lower energy intakes.

    ^
    lots of interesting stuff in this article...
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    International Journal of Obesity; Dec2006 Supplement 3, Vol. 30, pS16-S23, 8p

    Dietary protein, metabolism, and body-weight regulation: dose?response effects.

    Authors: Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S.1,2 M.Westerterp@hb.unimaas.nl
    Luscombe-Marsh, N.1,2
    Lejeune, M. P. G. M.1,2
    Diepvens, K.1
    Nieuwenhuizen, A.1,2
    Engelen, M. P. K. J.2,3
    Deutz, N. E. P.2,3
    Azzout-Marniche, D.4
    Tome, D.4
    Westerterp, K. R.1,2

    Abstract:
    Body-weight management requires a multifactorial approach. Recent findings suggest that an elevated protein intake seems to play a key role herein, through (i) increased satiety related to increased diet-induced thermogenesis; (ii) its effect on thermogenesis; (iii) body composition; and (iv) decreased energy-efficiency, all of which are related to protein metabolism. Supported by these mechanisms, relatively larger weight loss and subsequent stronger body-weight maintenance have been observed. Increased insulin sensitivity may appear, but it is unclear whether this is due to weight loss or type of diet. The phenomenon of increased satiety is utilized in reduced energy-intake diets, mainly in the ad libitum condition, whereby sustained satiety is achieved with sustained absolute protein intake in grams, despite lower energy intake. Elevated thermogenesis and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) appear to play a role in high-protein induced satiety. Under conditions of weight maintenance, a high-protein diet shows a reduced energy efficiency related to the body composition of the body weight regained, that is, in favor of fat-free mass. Indeed, during body-weight loss, as well as during weight regain, a high-protein diet preserves or increases fat-free mass and reduces fat mass and improves the metabolic profile. In the short-term this may be supported by a positive protein and a negative fat balance, through increased fat oxidation. As protein intake is studied under various states of energy balance, absolute and relative protein intake needs to be discriminated. In absolute grams, a normal protein diet becomes a relatively high-protein diet in negative energy balance and at weight maintenance. Therefore, ?high protein negative energy balance diets? aim to keep the grams of proteins ingested at the same level as consumed at energy balance, despite lower energy intakes.International Journal of Obesity (2006) 30, S16?S23. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803487 [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
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    yummmmyyy.... fungus.......

    Nutrition Bulletin (NUTR BULL), 2008 Dec; 33(4): 298-310 (50 ref)

    Mycoprotein and health.

    Denny A; Aisbitt B; Lunn J

    Abstract:
    Mycoprotein is a high protein, high fibre, low fat food ingredient derived from fermentation of the filamentous fungus Fusarium venenatum. Interest in the putative role of mycoprotein in lowering blood cholesterol concentrations, reducing energy intakes and controlling blood sugar levels has generated a small number of human studies investigating the effects of mycoprotein on cholesterol reduction, satiety and insulinaemia/glycaemia. In today's 'obesogenic' environment, in which there is an abundance of foods high in fat and/or sugar available to consumers, there is growing interest in foods that are both nutritious and satiating, but that are of low-energy density, and are low in saturates, salt and sugar. Mycoprotein has a favourable fatty acid profile (being relatively low in saturates), a fibre content that is comparable with other vegetarian protein sources, and a naturally low sodium content. Mycoprotein is a good source of zinc and selenium but the levels of iron and vitamin B12 in mycoprotein are low in comparison to red meat. A small number of studies investigating the cholesterol-lowering effects of mycoprotein have been carried out among normo- and hypercholesterolaemic adults. The published studies to date have a number of limitations (including small sample sizes and short study durations), but overall the studies report statistically significant reductions in total cholesterol amongst hypercholesterolaemic subjects (in the order of 4-14%). These results look promising in terms of the ability of mycoprotein to contribute modest but meaningful effects on blood cholesterol concentrations, as part of a varied and balanced diet. However, the exact amount of mycoprotein that would need to be consumed in free-living populations to have meaningful effects on cholesterol is a candidate for further confirmatory research. A number of studies have investigated the effects of mycoprotein in comparison with other protein sources on satiety. Several studies suggest that the effects of mycoprotein on satiety are greater than an equivalent amount of chicken but it is unclear what mechanism underlies this. The studies conducted so far are relatively small, and carried out under controlled conditions, so it is difficult to extrapolate the results to larger free-living populations. The promotion of mycoprotein could potentially be useful, alongside other strategies, in the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes, as it appears to show beneficial effects on glycaemia and insulinaemia in the small number of studies where this has been investigated. More research is needed to better understand the mechanism of action whereby mycoprotein influences glycaemia and insulinaemia, and whether there is any dose-dependent effect. This paper reviews the published evidence for mycoprotein and the topics above, draws interim conclusions about the role of mycoprotein in human health and identifies areas for future research.

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    'Starving' Fat Suppresses Appetite
    Randy Seeley, PhD (Credit: Image courtesy of University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center)
    ScienceDaily (Feb. 8, 2010)

    Peptides that target blood vessels in fat and cause them to go into programmed cell death (termed apoptosis) could become a model for future weight-loss therapies, say University of Cincinnati (UC) researchers.

    A research team led by Randy Seeley, PhD, of UC's Metabolic Diseases Institute, has found that obese animal models treated with proapoptotic peptide experienced decreased food intake and significant fat loss.

    The study was published online ahead of print Jan. 26, 2010, in Diabetes, the official journal of the American Diabetes Association.

    White adipose (fat) tissue is vascularized, much like a tumor, and growth of fat tissue is highly dependent on the tissue's ability to build new blood vessels -- a phenomenon called angiogenesis.

    Inhibiting adipose angiogenesis -- essentially "starving" fat tissue -- can reverse the effects of a high-fat diet in mice and rats, says Seeley.

    "The body is extremely efficient at controlling energy balance," says Seeley, a professor in UC's internal medicine department and recipient of the 2009 Outstanding Scientific Achievement Award from the American Diabetes Association.

    "Think of fat tissue like a bathtub," he says. "To keep the amount of water the same, you have to make sure that the speed of the water coming in and the water going out match. If the water is coming in faster than the water is going out, eventually you have to build a bigger bathtub.

    "Obesity is the same. People who eat more calories than they burn have to build a bigger fat tissue 'bathtub,' and building new blood vessels is crucial to building this bigger bathtub. For each additional pound of fat tissue, you need to build a mile of blood vessels.

    "What we found is that if we can target these fat tissue blood vessels, animals eat less and lose weight as their 'bathtubs' get smaller."

    Seeley and his team treated lean and obese mice and rats with the proapoptotic peptide for periods of four or 27 days. They measured energy intake and expenditure daily in all animals -- some on low-fat diets, others on high-fat diets. The team found that the peptide completely reversed high-fat-diet-induced obesity in already obese mice and also reduced body weight in the mice and rats placed on high-fat diets. No changes were recorded in animals on low-fat diets.

    Seeley's team found that fat loss was occurring without major changes to energy expenditure, but with reduced food intake. The authors noted that there were no signs of illness with this treatment and results were independent of the actions of the appetite-controlling hormone leptin.

    "These experiments indicate that there is a novel system that informs our brains about the size of our fat tissue 'bathtubs' and can influence how much we eat," says Seeley. "The findings highlight the ability to provide new therapeutic strategies for obesity based on these dynamics of blood vessels in our fat tissue." The next step, Seeley says, is to out the important signals that come from fat that cause the weight loss.

    This study was supported by grants from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Co-authors include Dong-Hoon Kim, PhD, and Stephen Woods, PhD, both of the University of Cincinnati.

    Web address: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases...0201113756.htm
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    Palm oil

    http://sun2.science.wayne.edu/~pkhosla/EJLST.pdf
    I recently read the above article.
    I had always avoided palm oil because of its SF content but this seems to contradict its harmfulness. I also wasn't sure if it made a difference that it was a vegetable source of SF rather than animal.
    DRAWING INSPIRATION from others progress:http://forum.bodybuilding.com/showthread.php?t=154060251


    Founder of MMDELAD
    "Micros Matter Dont Eat Like A Dumba**" (hydrogenated oils, shortening, mono and di-glycerides don't fit in my macros)

    Forever grateful to: emma-leigh, markVI, scooter


    "Think in terms of limits and the result is limitation
    Think in terms of progress and the result is progression"

    my day:http://forum.bodybuilding.com/showthread.php?t=156294333
    Reply With Quote

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