Just a few articles...
J Nutr. 1997 Oct;127(10):2000-5. Links
The western lowland gorilla diet has implications for the health of humans and other hominoids.
Popovich DG, Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Dierenfeld ES, Carroll RW, Tariq N, Vidgen E.
Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Center, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada.
We studied the western lowland gorilla diet as a possible model for human nutrient requirements with implications for colonic function. Gorillas in the Central African Republic were identified as consuming over 200 species and varieties of plants and 100 species and varieties of fruit. Thirty-one of the most commonly consumed foods were collected and dried locally before shipping for macronutrient and fiber analysis. The mean macronutrient concentrations were (mean +/- SD, g/100 g dry basis) fat 0.5 +/- 0.4, protein 11.8 +/- 8.2, available carbohydrate 7.7 +/- 6.3 and dietary fiber 74.0 +/- 12.9. Assuming that the macronutrient profile of these foods was reflective of the whole gorilla diet and that dietary fiber contributed 6.28 kJ/g (1.5 kcal/g), then the gorilla diet would provide 810 kJ (194 kcal) metabolizable energy per 100 g dry weight. The macronutrient profile of this diet would be as follows: 2.5% energy as fat, 24.3% protein, 15.8% available carbohydrate, with potentially 57.3% of metabolizable energy from short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) derived from colonic fermentation of fiber. Gorillas would therefore obtain considerable energy through fiber fermentation. We suggest that humans also evolved consuming similar high foliage, high fiber diets, which were low in fat and dietary cholesterol. The macronutrient and fiber profile of the gorilla diet is one in which the colon is likely to play a major role in overall nutrition. Both the nutrient and fiber components of such a diet and the functional capacity of the hominoid colon may have important dietary implications for contemporary human health.
PMID: 9311957 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997;427:35-42.Links
What is a high fiber diet?
Wolever TM, Jenkins DJ.
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
There is no recognized definition of what constitutes a high fiber diet. Intakes of dietary fiber in different populations internationally vary widely from less than 20 g to more than 80 g per day. The types of foods contributing fiber also vary; in some countries cereals contribute the most fiber, in others leafy or root vegetables predominate. Vegetables have the highest fiber content per Kcal, and in most populations with fiber intakes over 50 g, vegetables contribute over 50% of total fiber intake. In rural Uganda, where the fiber hypothesis was first developed by Burkitt and Trowell, vegetables contribute over 90% of fiber intake. An experimental diet, the "Simian" diet, has been developed to mimic as closely as possible using human foods, the diet consumed by our simian ancestors the great apes. It is also similar to the Ugandan diet in containing large amounts of vegetables and 50 g fiber/1000 Kcal. Though nutritionally adequate, this diet is very bulky and not a suitable model for general recommendations. Dietary guidelines are that fat intake should be < 30% of energy, with a fiber intake of 20-35 g/d. These recommendations are inconsistent with a high fiber diet because, for people consuming more than about 2400 Kcal, low fiber choices for fruits and grains must be selected to keep dietary fiber intake within the range of 20-35 g. In a 30% fat, 1800 Kcal omnivorous diet, selection of wholemeal bread and whole fruit, results in a fiber intake over 35 g/d, and for and 1800 Kcal vegetarian diet, with substitution of modest amounts of peanut butter and beans for meats, dietary fiber intake goes up to 45 g/d. Thus, if it is desirable to promote the use of unrefined foods, the recommended dietary fiber intake should be a minimum of 15-20 g/1000 Kcal.
PMID: 9361828 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Nov;62(5 Suppl):1158S-1160S. Links
Contribution of fiber and resistant starch to metabolizable energy.
Behall KM, Howe JC.
Diet and Human Performance Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, US Department of Agriculture, MD 20705, USA.
Recommendations made to increase complex carbohydrate and fiber intake in the United States may result in energy loss from increased fecal losses of starch, protein, and fat. The type of fiber or starch and the amount consumed affect digestion of the carbohydrate and interactions with other nutrients. On average, 8.4 kJ (2 kcal) digestible energy/g is available from up to 70 g poorly digested carbohydrate/d. Undigested fiber and starch are important substrates for colon bacteria and are fermented to short-chain fatty acids, hydrogen, and methane. Hydrogen and methane excreted through the lungs have been used as indicators of colonic fermentation. Fermentation appears to contribute significant digestible energy when > 20 g poorly digested carbohydrate/d is consumed.
PMID: 7484936 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec;61 Suppl 1:S40-74. Links
Physiological aspects of energy metabolism and gastrointestinal effects of carbohydrates.
Elia M, Cummings JH.
Institute of Human Nutrition, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. email@example.com
The energy values of carbohydrates continue to be debated. This is because of the use of different energy systems, for example, combustible, digestible, metabolizable, and so on. Furthermore, ingested macronutrients may not be fully available to tissues, and the tissues themselves may not be able fully to oxidize substrates made available to them. Therefore, for certain carbohydrates, the discrepancies between combustible energy (cEI), digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) and net metabolizable energy (NME) may be considerable. Three food energy systems are in use in food tables and for food labelling in different world regions based on selective interpretation of the digestive physiology and metabolism of food carbohydrates. This is clearly unsatisfactory and confusing to the consumer. While it has been suggested that an enormous amount of work would have to be undertaken to change the current ME system into an NME system, the additional changes may not be as great as anticipated. In experimental work, carbohydrate is high in the macronutrient hierarchy of satiation. However, studies of eating behaviour indicate that it does not unconditionally depend on the oxidation of one nutrient, and argue against the operation of a simple carbohydrate oxidation or storage model of feeding behaviour to the exclusion of other macronutrients. The site, rate and extent of carbohydrate digestion in, and absorption from the gut are key to understanding the many roles of carbohydrate, although the concept of digestibility has different meanings. Within the nutrition community, the characteristic patterns of digestion that occur in the small (upper) vs large (lower) bowel are known to impact in contrasting ways on metabolism, while in the discussion of the energy value of foods, digestibility is defined as the proportion of combustible energy that is absorbed over the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract. Carbohydrates that reach the large bowel are fermented to short-chain fatty acids. The exact amounts and types of carbohydrate that reach the caecum are unknown, but are probably between 20 and 40 g/day in countries with 'westernized' diets, whereas they may reach 50 g/day where traditional staples are largely cereal or diets are high in fruit and vegetables. Non-starch polysaccharides clearly affect bowel habit and so, to a lesser extent, does resistant starch. However, the short-chain carbohydrates, which are also found in breast milk, have little if any laxative role, although do effect the balance of the flora. This latter property has led to the term 'prebiotic', which is defined as the capacity to increase selectively the numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli without growth of other genera. This now well-established physiological property has not so far led through to clear health benefits, but current studies are focused on their potential to prevent diarrhoeal illnesses, improve well-being and immunomodulation, particularly in atopic children and on increased calcium absorption.
PMID: 17992186 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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